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    Operation Reinhard Mass Graves: Space for Mass Graves

    How do we know there was enough room for the mass graves in the Operation Reinhard death camps of Treblinka and Belzec?

    Holocaust deniers claim:

    There is not enough room in the Operation Reinhard death camps of Treblinka, Belzec, and Sobibor to have buried the bodies of the alleged victims.

    The facts are:

    The Holocaust deniers’ assumptions about the total mass of the bodies and how they would have been buried in the Operation Reinhard death camps of Treblinka, Sobibor, and Belzec are faulty. When the evidence is examined, including more reasonable estimates as to the mass of the bodies and the sizes of the camps, it is clear that there was more than enough room to accommodate the mass graves in the camps.

    The self-named “Denierbud,” an American Holocaust denier and video maker, claims that: “At Treblinka, Belzec and Sobibor an estimated 1.38 million bodies were allegedly buried . . . The problem is that there isn’t enough burial space in the maps and models for that many bodies.”[1]

    John Ball, a Canadian Holocaust denier, makes the same claim based on his “analysis” of aerial reconnaissance photographs taken of the camps after the war. In a book entitled Air Photo Evidence, Ball asserts that the burial of 800,000 bodies in Treblinka “would have taken an area 40 times larger than the alleged grave site.”[2]

    How Denierbud arrives at his conclusion that there was not enough space in the camps to bury the bodies of the murdered Jews.

    Denierbud calculates how much space he believes one adult male body would take up and arrives at a figure of .3408 cubic meters for each (or about 12 cubic feet.)  He then arbitrarily decides that one mass grave in Treblinka would have contained 11,250 cubic meters of burial space.

    He divides the 11,250 cubic meters available in his speculative grave by .3408 cubic meters per body and concludes that one grave could hold about 33,000 bodies, or about 3 adult male bodies per cubic meter.  Using the figure of 33,000 bodies for each grave, he divides the number of victims in each camp by the 33,000 figure to come to a number of grave pits each camp would have needed.

    For Treblinka, with his estimation of 700,000 victims, he arrives at a total of 21.2 pits.

    For Belzec, with his estimation of 600,000 victims, he arrives at a total of 18.02 pits.

    For Sobibor, he dispenses with his calculations entirely and uses ridicule and unsupported assumptions.

    Then Denierbud spreads red blocks representing 21 pits all over maps of Treblinka to show that the area of the graves would have covered the entire camp—a clear impossibility.[3]

    By Treblinka2.JPG: The original uploader was Johannes49 at Dutch Wikipedia derivative work: Nothere (This file was derived from  Treblinka2.JPG:) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/) or GFDL], via Wikimedia Commons

    How and why Denierbud is wrong. 

    First, the cubic area Denierbud calculates that would be required for each body is not representative of the average size or mass of the victim. Second, he misrepresents the way the bodies were thrown into the graves in a way that actually wastes the space that was available. Finally, he uses maps of the camps that are not scaled and so cannot be used to draw conclusions about how many graves could be fit into a given area.

    Let us look at Denierbud’s faulty assumptions one at a time.

    Denierbud’s calculated mass of one body is not representative of the average size of the victims.

    Denierbud concludes that about three adult male bodies could be buried in one cubic meter.  How does he calculate this figure?

    First, he calculates a shoulder width of 26 inches for each body, a depth of 16 inches (including an even 7 inch layer of sand) and a length of 50 inches. The 50 inch length is less the area of the head, which he positions between the feet of two other bodies, thus creating a cheerleading-style pyramid.[4]

    The shoulder width of 26 inches corresponds to that of a healthy, well-fed, adult American male football player exceeding 225 pounds—not the emaciated women, children, infants, and elderly Polish Jews who were the larger part of the victims in the camps.[5]  In the mid-twentieth century, Polish Jews were—according to our modern standards in the United States—generally of smaller stature. The average height of a Polish Jewish male was about 5 foot 3 inches.  It follows that their body mass was also less on the average.[6]

    Further, the layer of sand (or lime) was not exactly 7 inches at all times. Spreading even layers of sand and lime over the bodies was not always done in every circumstance in every grave even in the same camp.

    Other Holocaust deniers who attempt the same calculations come up with relatively more realistic figures than does Denierbud. Both Carlo Mattogno, an Italian holocaust denier, and John Ball, a Canadian Holocaust denier, calculate 8 bodies per cubic meter assuming one-third of them were children.

    Thus, it is fair to conclude that Denierbud’s calculations do not represent the actual size or mass of the majority of the adult victims in these camps, much less the children and infants. Denierbud’s calculations at least double to triple the area needed for the body of a child or infant, which made up about half of the number of total victims. 

    A more realistic appraisal comes from Alex Bay, who has meticulously and scientifically analyzed the air photographs of Treblinka and Belzec with the most current technology available. Bay calculates just the mass of the body itself. By discarding the void areas around each body and calculating the mass of a more typical adult male body, he comes much closer to the true burial capacity of a cubic square meter—10.7 adult male bodies.[7]  Revised calculations using Bay’s more realistic body mass reveals that at both Treblinka and Belzec, there was ample space in the known mass graves to hold the victims.[8]

    Denierbud misrepresents the way the bodies were thrown into the graves in a way that actually wastes the space that was available. 

    We do not have a lot of details about how the mass graves were filled with bodies as there were virtually no survivors from the Sonderkommandos who worked in the extermination part of the camps, but there is some information available.

    Abraham Krzepicki, who survived Treblinka, testified about the mass graves near the reception area which were reserved for the bodies of those who had perished on the train or who were executed before they ever made it to the death camp area: “Things were humming out there on that big field . . . They [the work Jews] were dragging corpses into the ditches which had been dug for them by the machine. We could also see Jews pushing carts piled with bodies toward the big ditches at the edge of the field . . . They were all running . . . There were various kinds of ditches in that place. At a distance, running parallel with the outermost camp fence, there were three giant mass graves, in which the dead were arranged in layers.”[9]

    Shlomo Winer (also known as Jacob Grojanowski) described the process of burying the bodies at Chelmno: “The corpses were thrown one on top of another, like rubbish on a heap. We got hold of them by the feet and the hair. At the edge of the ditch stood two men who threw in the bodies.  In the ditch stood an additional two men who packed them in head to feet, facing downwards. If any space was left, a child was pushed in.”[10]

    The key factors seem to be speed and the rough layering the bodies, although not with the precision and care claimed by Denierbud. The object appears to have been to fill the grave more or less evenly but not necessarily arranging the bodies in neat rows of 12 cubic foot rectangles and covering them with even layers of sand.

    Why would the bodies of Jews be treated with any dignity in death when in life they were considered to be diseased parasites and vermin. The Germans even forbade the work Jews to use the words “corpse” or “victim.” The bodies of the Jews were instead referred to as “Figuren” (puppets, dolls) or “Schmattes” (rags).[11] To Christian Wirth, the director of all three camps, they were simply “garbage” to be disposed of quickly and with the least fuss so the process of killing would not be slowed down.[12] 

    Denierbud applies the number of pits he calculates onto the map from a book on the Operation Reinhard camps that is not scaled to size.

    The map of Treblinka used by Denierbud is not scaled. It was drawn from the memory of an eyewitness survivor and is for visualization purposes only. Therefore, any calculations purporting to measure the extermination area of the camps and then covering that area with red blobs representing mass graves are invalid.

    Conclusion

    Denierbud’s calculations about the mass of a typical body are based on faulty assumptions and as a result his conclusions are invalid. He speculates about how the bodies would have been buried and uses an unscaled map to make his space projections for the mass graves. John Ball’s conclusions are not based on any evidence. He offers an opinion about the burial space required at Treblinka and makes no effort to explain how he came to his conclusions about the amount of space required or available.

    NOTES

    [1] See “One Third of the Holocaust” at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=taIaG8b2u8I at approximately 1:34 minutes.

    [2] John Clive Ball, “Air Photo Evidence,” p. 113 at http://archive.org/details/Air_Photo_Evidence (select PDF). Ball was supposed to be a witness at trial of Ernst Zündel, a German-Canadian Holocaust denier, in Toronto in 1988, but the judge rejected him as a witness because he was not a “proper expert.”  In fact, it emerged that Ball was a consulting geologist by profession and the only training he ever received in aerial photography analysis was a course in college.  Ball has dropped his $100,000 offer from his web site and dropped out of sight and only his book remains. About the reward being dropped see Jamie McCarthy, “John Ball: Air Photo Expert?” at http://www.holocaust-history.org/auschwitz/john-ball/.

    [3] See “One Third of the Holocaust” at approximately 1:40 minutes.

    [4] See “One Third of the Holocaust” at approximately 1:36 minutes.

    [5] R&D Ergonomics sells ergonomic rests for computer users, which are based on shoulder measurements.  An average-framed individual has shoulders between 16 and 26 inches.  A large-framed rest fits people with very wide shoulders, exceeding 26 inches.  See www.morencyrest.com/sizing.htm.

    [6] The average stature of male Poles (both Jewish and non-Jewish) was about 5 feet 3 inches, with Jews being, on the average, slightly shorter than Poles.  Female Jews were, on the average, shorter yet—around 5 feet tall.  About 10 percent of the Jewish population was taller than the average.  See Jewish Encyclopedia, “Stature” at http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13993-stature.

    [7] Alex Bay, “The Reconstruction of Treblinka” (Appendix D—Ash Disposal and Burial Pits) at http://www.holocaust-history.org/Treblinka/appendixd/appendixd2.shtml.  See also “Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. Holocaust Denial and Operation Reinhard. Chapter 7: Mass Graves (5). Capacity of the Graves” at http://holocaustcontroversies.blogspot.com/2011/12/belzec-sobibor-treblinka-holocaust_4489.html.

    [8] For an extended analysis of how many bodies the mass graves in Belzec and Treblinka could have held see Jonathan Harrison, Robert Muehlenkamp, Jason Myers, Sergey Romanov and Nicholas Terry, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: Holocaust Denial and Operation Reinhard.  A Critique of the Falsehoods of Mattogno, Graf and Kues, pp. 416-427 (“Capacity of the Graves”) at http://holocaustcontroversies.blogspot.com/2011/12/belzec-sobibor-treblinka-holocaust.html.  Select Google Docs, Rapidshare or Archive.org for a PDF version.

    [9] Abraham Krzepicki, “Eighteen Days in Treblinka” in Alexander Donat’s The Death Camp Treblinka: A Documentary (Holocaust Library, 1979), p. 86.

    [10] Jacob Grojanowski was a pseudonym.  As several men escaped from Chelmno, there has long been speculation about Grojanowski’s real identity. Some say his real name was Szlamek Bajler.  (See “Szlamek Bajler, also known as Yakov Grojanowski: Notes on the Chelmno Waldlager, January 1942” p. 2/8 at http://www.deathcamps.org/occupation/bajler.html.)  Others believe that the identity of Grojanowski has been clarified beyond reasonable to be Shlomo (or ‘Szlamek’) Winer. (See discussion in Jonathan Harrison, Robert Muehlenkamp, Jason Myers, Sergey Romanov and Nicholas Terry, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: Holocaust Denial and Operation Reinhard.  A Critique of the Falsehoods of Mattogno, Graf and Kues, pp. 46-47 at http://holocaustcontroversies.blogspot.com/2011/12/belzec-sobibor-treblinka-holocaust.html.  Select Google Docs, Rapidshare or Archive.org for a PDF version.  They are citing Przemyslaw Nowicki in ‘Zanim “przybył z zaświatów,” nazywał się Winer.  Krag rodzinny i konspiracyjny Szlamka, uciekiniera z ośrodka zagłady w Chełmnie nad Nerem, Zagłada Zydow, 2009, pp.162-192.)

    [11] Testimony of Motke Zaïdl and Itzhak Dugin on the digging up and cremation of the bodies in the mass graves at Vilna, Lithuania as cited in Claude Lanzmann, Shoah: The Complete Text of the Acclaimed Holocaust Film (Da Capo Press, 1995), p. 9.

    [12] Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps (Indiana University Press, 1987), p. 183.