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The Systematic Character of the National Socialist Policy for the Extermination of the Jews: Electronic Edition, by Heinz Peter Longerich

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3.3 Einsatzgruppe D

3.3.1The shooting of women and children in the area of Einsatzgruppe D is documented for the first time for the period at the end of August. Around 29 August in the region of Jampol, the Einsatzkommando 12 shot several hundred women and children from a convey of more than 11.000 people which the Commando was driving over the Dniester bridge into Romanian-occupied territories.167
3.3.2Shortly thereafter, at least three, probably however all four of the commandos of Einsatzgruppe D proceeded to systematically murder the entire Jewish population of different villages. The decisive order for the transition to this new stage of mass murder came at the end of August - or the beginning of September from Ohlendorf. Nosske, Leader of the EK 12, stated on this point in 1969 that around the beginning of September, Ohlendorf, together with Rasch, the Leader of EG C visited him and   admitted upon this occasion "that from now there exists a Führerbefehl according to which all Jews are to be killed indiscriminately". Until then, the murder of the Jews had been "only in the context of a general order for the security and pacification of the area behind the lines".168
3.3.3A report of the Einsatzgruppe D of September 1941 reflected this new kind of procedure. Here it was stated that "the majority of the forces were employed for political pacification in places where the stirrings of Jewish and communists terror groups were to be noted, especially in the area of Ananjev and Dubossary. In this area the pacification was ruthlessly carried out".169 In fact, "ruthless" pacification meant the murder of the entire population of both villages.
3.3.4- In Ananjev, the SK 10B on 28 August "shot about 300 Jewish and Jewish women"170, i.e. all Jews who had entered the town.171
3.3.5- A sub-unit of Commando EK 12, which stopped in Dubossary at the end of August -beginning of September, killed small groups of Jews practically daily in that town.172 Around the middle of September on the other hand, the unit at first murdered all of the approximately 1500 Jewish inhabitants of the town and a few days later a further 1000 Jews from the nearby areas. Drexel, the Leader of the sub unit stated on this point that he had received orders from a member of the staff of Ohlendorf's group "to shot the Jews living in Dubossary".173
3.3.6- At the end of September, the SK 11a (together with a sub unit of the EK 12 and probably with support from SK 11 b) shot all inhabitants of the ghetto in Nikolajew, where the Headquarters of the Staff of EG D was located. This involved   approximately 5000 women, men and children.174 Around the same time, probably a few days later, the entire Jewish population of Cherson was murdered by SK 11a.175
3.3.7The mass executions of Ananjev, Dubossary, Nikolajew and Cherson, which took place between the end of August and the end of September, marked the transition to the undifferentiated murder of the Jewish civilian population in areas of EG D. Also in this case, Himmler did not avoid the task of personally inspecting the mass murders, which now took on a new dimension: for the period from 30 September until 6 October, we have evidence that Himmler carried out an inspection tour in the Ukraine in which he also visited Nikolajew and Cherson, so that it is clear that he was present in both places either during or directly after the mass executions.176
3.3.8In the event report of 26 September177 the EG D reported in conclusion:
Working area of Commando made free of Jews: from 19 August to 15 October, 8890 Jews and communists executed. Total number: 13,315. At this time the Jewish Question in Nikolajew and Cherson is being solved. About 5000 Jews were seized.
About a week later, the event report states:
The clearing of the area of Jews and communist elements by the commandos was continued. In particular, the cities of Nikolajew and Cherson were freed of Jews and the functionaries were handled accordingly.178
3.3.9Also in the following months, the EG D continued this murderous course: thus EG D reported for the first half of October:
The territories which have been recently occupied by the commandos have been rendered free of Jews.179
 
3.3.10In the October report of the group180 it was said:
The solution of the Jewish Question was energetically attacked by the EG, the Security Police and the SD, especially in the area east of the Dnieper. The territories which have been recently occupied by the commandos have been rendered free of Jews. 4891 Jews were liquidated in the process. In other locations, the Jews were marked and registered. It was thereby possible to make available Jewish work groups as large as 10.000 to the authorities of the Wehrmacht.

Notes

164. ZSt., 204 AR-Z 1251/65 D, vol. 15, District Court Regensburg, indictment
165. Statement, 11.3.69 (ZSt, 204 AR-Z 1251/65 B., vol. 7, pp. 1320ff).
166. ZSt., 204 AR-Z 1251/65 D, Concluding Report Bavarian Land Criminal Office 19.12.77, vol. 14, pp. 2742ff. See further the reports BAB, NS 33/22, telex HSSPF South of 21.8., 24.8., 27.8. with reports on the shootings of Bataillon 314.
167. Statement of Nosske, 9.4.62 (StA Munich, 119 c Js 1/69, vol. 4, pp. 482ff); statement of Max Drexel, 17.4.62 (vol. 2, pp. 132ff), statement of Karl Becker, 22.9.61 (vol. 3, pp. 274ff) as well as the statement of Erwin Harsch, 1.12.47 (vol. 7, pp. 1604ff). Cf. also Ogorreck, Einsatzgruppen, pp. 157ff.
168. ZSt., II 213 AR 1902/66 Main file XI, Taking of evidence of Nosske, 13.3.69, pp. 2610ff; similarily, ZSt., II 213 AR 1902/66, Correspondence-file, vol. 2, pp. 597ff, 24.5.71; on Nosske's statements see Ogorreck, Einsatzgruppen, pp. 207ff
169. BAM, RH 20-11-488, Report of the delegate of the head of the Security Police and the SD at the commander of the Army Rear Area South 11.9.41. ( Bericht des Beauftragten des Chefs der Sipo und des SD beim Befehlshaber Rückwärtiges Heeresgebiet Süd, 11.9.41.??)
170. IfZ, NOKW 1702, Report of 3.9.41.
171. IfZ, NO 4992, Aussage Robert Barth, 12.9.47.
172. StA Munich, 119 c Js 1/69, indictment of 28.10.70 as well as Verdict; statement of the inhabitant Ivan Andreyevich Jordanov, 23.7.69 (vol. 6, pp. 705ff); statement of Erich Rohde, 3.6.70 (vol. 5, pp. 584ff).
173. Ibid., statement of Max Drexel, 17.4.62 (vol.2, pp. 132ff); interrogation of Erich Rohde, 3.6.70 (vol.5, pp. 584ff).
174. Ibid., indictment of 8.3.66; statements of Zöllner, 28.4.62, 3.5.62 (vol. 4, pp. 934ff), Karl Heinrich Noa, 18.8.65 (vol. 11, pp. 2292ff) and Otto Eichelbaum, 25.6.64 (vol. 8, pp. 1888ff). For the participation of the members of EK 12 see STA Munich, 119 c Js 1/69, statement of Karl Becker, 22.9.61 (vol. 3, pp. 274ff). See also NOKW 3233, Report on the activities of the SK XI a in Nikolayev of 18.8.-31.8.41.
175. STA Munich, 118 Ks 2/68, indictment of 8.3.66; statement of Günther Kosanke, 12.4.62 (vol. 4, pp. 888ff); BAM, RH 20-11/488, Report of the activities of the SKdo 11a in Kherson from 22.8. to 10.9.41. On the involvement of the Police Bataillon 311 cf. Breitman, Architekt, p. 283.
176. Breitman, Architekt, pp. 279f; BAB, NS 19/3957.
177. EM 95. The number of 8890 is also already found in EM 89 of 20.9.
178. EM 101, 2.10.41.
179. EM 116, 17.10.41.
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