Hitler's Role in the Persuection of the Jews by the Nazi Regime: Electronic Version, by Heinz Peter Longerich

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12.1After the victory over France in June, 1940, the plan to push the Jews into a "reservation" (Reservat) in Poland was replaced with another project for the territorial solution of the Jewish problem: the so- called Madagascar plan.
12.2As early as 25, May Himmler had presented Hitler with a memorandum which included the following key sentence with respect to the fate of the Jews: "I hope to see that by means of the possibility of a large emigration of all Jews to Africa or to some other colony - that the concept of Jew will be fully extinguished". In the same document Himmler had still rejected "the Bolshevist methods of physical extirpation (Ausrottung) of a people because of inner conviction, as un-German and impossible".105 Hitler judged this memorandum to be "very good and correct", according to Himmler's note of 28 May. The document however was "to be held in the greatest secrecy"; Himmler was to show it to Frank at some point "in order to tell him that the Führer finds it correct".106
12.3Plans for the re-settlement of altogether four million Jews to the island off the African east coast were worked out in the German Department of the Foreign Office107 as well as in the Reich Security Head Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt).108 From the surviving records of the German Foreign Office it is clear that the Madagascar plan (like the plan of a "Jewish reservation" in Poland) was not a new variation of a solution for emigration (Auswanderungslösung), but rather that here the Jews were to play the role of hostages; the Jews under German control would be used in this way to prevent the United States from entering the war. Thus in a note from the Jewish expert of the German Department, Rademacher, it is said that109 under a German "police governor" (Polizeigouverneur) "the Jews" should be set up as security under German control for the future good behaviour of their racial associates in America"; and in another note, the same expert wrote that the Security Police was "experienced with carrying out appropriate punishments which had become necessary because of unfriendly activities by Jews in the USA against Germany".110 The mere fact that Madagascar lacked the basic conditions necessary for existence for four million European Jews makes it clear that the plan itself was a threat to the further existence of Jews in the area of German dominance.
12.4Hitler's extreme interest in the Madagascar plan is fully documented. Ribbentrop and Hitler sketched out the plan to the Italian Foreign Minister Ciano and Mussolini during their talks in Munich on 17 and 18 June.111 Hitler mentioned the Madagascar project on 20 June to the Commander in chief of the Navy, Raeder.112 On 12 July Frank passed on to his collaborators the following information from a conversation with Hitler which had taken place four days earlier:  
Very important is also the decision of the Führer which came from a proposal of mine that there be no further transports of Jews into the Generalgouvernement. In general political terms I would like to say that it is planned to transport the entire Jewish clan from the German Reich, the Generalgouvernement and the Protectorat to an African or American colony in the shortest conceivable time span following the peace settlement. Madagascar is being considered; it would be separated from France for this purpose.113
12.5At the beginning of August, Hitler in a discussion with his Ambassador to Paris, Abetz,114 returned to the plan of expulsion (Vertreibung) of all Jews from Europe; a similar statement of Hitler`s from the middle of August is mentioned in Goebbels's diary.115


103. 'als vorgeschobenes Glacis für uns militärische Bedeutung hat und für einen Aufmarsch ausgenutzt werden kann'. YV, 053-87, Gestapoau෼enstelle Mährisch-Ostrau, 21.10.39.
104. "Führung des Gebiets ... es uns ermöglichen, auch das Reichsgebiet von Juden und Polacken zu reinigen'. IMT XXVI, pp. 378f, 864-PS, protocol, 20.10.39. For the hesitations of the Military against further concentration of Jews in the area of Lublin-also the note of Krüger on 1 November, Präg/Jacobmeyer (ed.), Diensttagebuch, p. 56).
105. 'Den Begriff Jude hoffe ich, durch die Möglichkeit einer großen Auswanderung sämtlicher Juden nach Afrika oder sonst in eine Kolonie völlig auslöschen zu sehen.' 'die bolschewistische Methode der physischen Ausrottung eines Volkes aus innerer Überzeugung als ungermanisch und unmöglich'. The documdent is published in VfZ 5 (1957), pp. 194-198 (with a short introduction by Helmut Krausnick).
106. 'sehr gut und richtig', 'ganz geheim zu behandeln', 'um ihm zu sagen, daß der Führer das für richtig hielte'. Ibid., Himmler's note, 28.5.40.
107. Die Judenfrage im Friedensvertrage, 9.7.41 (PAA, Inland II g 177, printed in ADAP, Serie D, vol. 10, pp.92ff). See also Rademacher's note of 2 July 1941: "Plan zur Lösung der Judenfrage" (ibid.)
108. Summarized in a Brochure: PAA, Inland IIg 177.
109. 'die Juden als Faustpfand in deutscher Hand für ein zukünftiges Wohlverhalten ihrer Rassegenossen in Amerika'. Die Judenfrage im Friedensvertrag (ibid.)
110. 'die Erfahrung darin, Strafmaßnahmen, die wegen feindseliger Handlungen von Juden in USA gegen Deutschland erforderlich werden, in der geeigneten Weise durchzuführen'. Plan zur Lösung der Judenfrage (ibid.).
111. Ciano, Tagebücher, p. 249; Schmidt, Statist, pp. 494f.
112. Wagner (ed.), Lagevorträge, pp. 106ff.
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