As many names as possible are included, though the biographical details given below remain of necessity sketches. Some figures named in the report remained untraceable, others appear only fleetingly, and still others have acquired a new prominence only as a result of this report. Figures named in the text for the sake of clarity in explaining RWE structures, but who do not directly impinge on Irving's activities in Germany are not included. Neither are figures in the international revisionist scene named in other expert reports.
Althans, Bela Ewald: Former member of the FAP and contact man for Ernst Zündel in the FRG. Leader of the 1986 founded DJBW and organiser of the AVÖ from 1986 until its closure in 1992. The AVÖ had close connections to the GdNF, KAH, and DA. Its program was largely determined by Zündel's anti-Semitism, Holocaust denial, and belief in a world conspiracy. In this sense the AVÖ (and the parallel 'Freundeskreis Ernst Zündel' - 'Ernst Zündel's Friends' Circle') was an organisational body for the prominent international revisionists around Zündel, and provided Zündel with fresh 'Zündelists' and contacts in east Germany from the militant neo-Nazi scene. For instance in 1992 Althans travelled to Moscow to spread Zündel's form of revisionism. It is claimed that Althans and other members of the 'Freundeskreis' were present during the violence in Rostock-Lichtenhagen. Althans and the 'Freundeskreis' had close contacts within the neo-Nazi scene in Germany, for example to the DA, NO, and SrA. In 1994 Althans was an NPD candidate in the Munich city elections. In 1994 and 1995 Althans was found guilty in Munich and Berlin of defaming the memory of the dead and incitement to hatred, mainly because of opinions expressed in a 1993 documentary "Job neo-Nazi" ["Beruf Neonazi"].
Boche, Peter: Former member of the Republicans. He and his wife appeared on many of the important neo-Nazi marches of the early 1990s. In 1992 a member of the Nationals. Sophia Boche, like Ursula Worch, is a known activist in the DFF.
Busse, Friedhelm: In the 1970s and 1980s Busse was a decisive influence in the developments and restructuring of the militant neo-Nazi scene. In 1983 he was sentenced to 3 years 9 months imprisonment for complicity in a bank robbery and possession of explosives. From 1988 leader of the FAP until its banning in February 1995.
Christophersen, Thies: An SS-Sonderführer in a plant nursery in Rajsko near Auschwitz, in 1969 Christophersen became the editor of The Peasantry [Die Bauernschaft] and in 1971 of the series Critique - The Voice of the People [Kritik - Die Stimme des Volkes]. In 1971 he founded the 'Citizens and Peasants Initiative' ['Bürger- und Bauerninitiative' - BBI]. In 1973 his pamphlet The Auschwitz Lie [Die Auschwitz-Lüge] appeared in his own publisher's 'Kritik-Verlag'. According to Christophersen those who died in Auschwitz were victims of bad hygienic conditions. In 1974 he called for a re-legalisation of the NSDAP and from 1976 to 1984 was involved in a series of trials and appeals in Germany for incitement to hatred, denigration of the state, and circulation of unconstitutional symbols. In 1981, following a further court judgement against him, he fled to Belgium and in 1986 to Denmark from where he continued his postal book service 'North Wind' ['Nordwind']. In 1987 his 'Kritik-Verlag' moved to Switzerland and Die Bauernschaft appeared under the auspices of the publisher's 'Nordland Forlag' and the Danish neo-Nazi leader Poul Rijs Knudsen. In 1990 his BBI dissolved itself, although Christophersen had resigned as chairman in 1988. Christophersen is a leading denialist. In 1988 he appeared as a witness at Ernst Zündel's Toronto trial and in 1989 spoke to a meeting of the KAH in Madrid. He organised his own revisionist congresses in Hagenau and Antwerp. In 1994 Ernst Zündel became the editor of Die Bauernschaft. In 1995 Christophersen left Denmark for Switzerland as a result of local protests, from where he in turn left in 1996, apparently to Spain. In his writings and speeches Christophersen openly propagated neo-Nazi thinking with an emphasis on Holocaust denial and a 'Blood-and-soil' ['Blut-und-Boden'] ideology.
Dahl, Walter: Highly decorated World War II fighter-pilot and Nazi war hero. After the war political contacts to Dr. Gerhard Frey and Erwin Schönborn.
Deckert, Günter: In 1966 Deckert joined the NPD and in the 1970s became the party's deputy chairman and leader of its youth wing the JN. In 1981 he left the party and grounded his own 'German List' ['Deutsche Liste'] and the RWE 'The Germans' ['Die Deutschen']. In 1988 he was suspended as a civil servant from his teaching job. In 1991 he rejoined the NPD and was its leader until 1995, a position lost through internal party critique. In 1992 and 1995 Deckert was found guilty of incitement to racial hatred and defamation of the memory of the dead, which led to three years of revisions and appeals. In 1996 he served a seven-month sentence for incitement of the people. Deckert is one of the most influential figures in the history of the NPD - in the 1980s for his concentration on racial incitement against asylum-seekers and migrants, in the 1990s for his propagation of revisionism. Under his leadership the NPD became a collecting point for the members of banned organisations and groups.
Dienel, Thomas: Former state chairman of the NPD in Thüringen, in which function he helped organise the rally in Halle on 9 November 1991. Later leader of the neo-Nazi DNP, founded in 1992 in Thüringen. The DNP appeared at numerous spectacular actions of the groups around the GdNF, itself a part of that circle. The DNP, including Dienel, took part in an action in Erfurt on 20 July 1992 following the death of Jewish leader Heinz Galinski. Pigs heads were thrown into the garden of the Jewish Community with labels that read 'Every pig dies - you too Heinz'. In 1992 Dienel was filmed saying 'Unfortunately the younger generation has not yet killed any Jews...'. Through such provocation the DNP took on a significance in the neo-Nazi scene beyond its real numerical weight. In December 1992 Dienel was sentenced to 2 years 8 months imprisonment for incitement of the people and defamation of the memory of the dead. Following his incarceration the DNP declined into insignificance.
Dill, Hans Joachim: Stuttgart businessman and financial supporter of Ernst Otto Remer's Remer-Depesche. Co-signatory of a call by the 'Friends' Circle Freedom for Germany' ['Freundeskreis Freiheit für Deutschland'] that demanded an end to the 'blackmail' of the German people with the Holocaust and called for a re-payment of the monies paid in reparations because the existence of the gas chambers had been called into question by German and foreign academics. The organisation was banned by the Interior Minister of Nordrhein-Westfälen in August 1993. Dill would also seem to have contacts to the 'Friends' Circle A Heart for Germany' ['Freundeskreis ein Herz für Deutschland'] that in turn worked closely with the 'Homeland-Loyal Organisation Germany' ['Heimattreuen Vereinigung Deutschlands'] - itself banned in July 1993. In 1993 Dill's premises were raided and after quantities of NS propaganda material were seized he was given to a 10-month suspended sentence for incitement of the people.
Felderer, Ditlieb: Swedish IHR activist, author in 1978 of 'Anne Frank's Diary - a Fraud', and witness at Ernst Zündel's 1985-1986 trial in Canada. Successfully sued by Holocaust survivor Mel Mermelstein in 1986 for attacking him personally in Felderer's Jewish Information Bulletin. In 1993 Felderer sent anti-Semitic letters to Berlin politicians and in 1994 was arrested and imprisoned in Sweden for his activities.
Franke-Gricksch, Ekkehard: Editor-in-chief of the monthly CODE ['Conföderation organisch denkender Europäer' - 'Confederation of Organic Thinking Europeans'] and head of the publisher's 'Diagnosen-Verlag'. CODE supported Zündel's denialist efforts in the 1990s and is closely tied to the RWE paper The Spotlight in the USA and the IHR's The Journal of Historical Review. Despite its own claims to the contrary CODE is marked by the tendentious attempts to portray the Holocaust as Jewish propaganda.
Goerth, Christa: Former member of the ANS/NA, and a faithful Kühnen follower. Long-time chair person of the 'Aid Organisation for National Prisoners' ['Hilfsorganisation für Nationale Gefangene' - HNG]. Under her direction the HNG, originally founded in 1979 to offer RWE prisoners financial and ideological support, came increasingly under the influence of Kühnen supporters.
Harder, Ulrich: Hamburg NPD chairman and leader of the 'Hamburg List for a Freeze on Foreigners' ['Hamburger Liste für Ausländerstopp' - HLA].
Haverbeck, Prof. Werner Georg: A central figure in the right-wing ecology spectrum for over 30 years. With the founding of the Collegium Humanum Haverbeck created one of the most important junctions for the ideological and logistical development of extreme right ecology and pagan thought in Germany.
Hess, Gerald: Long-time friend of Kühnen's and functionary in the GdNF who committed suicide in 1991.
Hess, Rüdiger: Son of Rudolf Hess and chairman of the 1989 founded 'Rudolf-Hess Society' ['Rudolf-Hess-Gesellschaft'], in turn a successor to the 'Relief Community "Freedom for Rudolf Hess' ['Hilfsgemeinschaft "Freiheit für Rudolf Hess"']. The society held seminars on the life of Rudolf Hess and was a co-organiser of the annual neo-Nazi Rudolf-Hess Memorial March.
Höffkes, Karl: Until 1983 Höffkes worked in circles around the 'Association of Homeland-Loyal Youth' ['Bund Heimattreue Jugend'] and the publisher's 'Arndt-Verlag'. Since 1987 part owner of the publisher's 'Verlag Heitz and Höffkes'. The company published (amongst others) titles by Hajo Hermann and the last Reich Youth Leader Arthur Axmann. In his own writings Höffkes is described as 'national revolutionary' with a tendency to glorification of NS.
Honsik, Gerd: Numerous convictions in Austria and Germany for his actions and publications, particularly his 1988 book Acquittal for Hitler? 36 unheard Witnesses versus the Gas Chamber [Freispruch für Hitler? 36 ungehörte Zeugen wider die Gaskammer] and NS re-activation. In 1992 Honsik fled to Spain.
Kabus, Thilo: Former NPD functionary and activist in the Nationals.
Knecht, Daniel: Alongside Althans and Wiesel an important exponent of the 'Frendeskreis Ernst Zündel'.
Küssel, Gottfried Michael: Member of the NSDAP/AO since 1977. Founder of the Austrian VAPO in 1986 and named 'Bereichsleiter Ostmark' [the NS title for Austria] by Kühnen in 1987. In 1990, following Kühnen's arrest, Küssel took over the organisation for the DA party congress in Cottbus. A leading activist in both the German and Austrian neo-Nazi scenes. Arrested in Vienna in 1993 and sentenced in the first instance to ten year's imprisonment for NS re-activity.
Munier, Dietmar: In the 1970s Munier was active in the JN and a leading member of the 'Association of People-Loyal Youth' ['Bund volkstreue Jugend']. In 1973 Munier grounded the publisher's 'Sturmwind-verlag' in the former premises of Christophersen's 'Nordwind-Verlag' in Kiel. In 1980 he joined the publisher's 'Arndt-Verlag', where in 1983 he replaced Höffkes as head. Munier's titles and activities in the 1990s have been above all revanchist, concentrating on attempts to 're-Germanise' eastern Europe.
Niemann, Stephan A.: Together with Althans, Knecht, and Wiesel one of the most prominent members of the 'Freundeskreis Ernst Zündel'. Niemann was manager of the AVÖ's offices in Munich until he and Althans fell out. Niemann's signature appeared on a propaganda statement of the 'Supporters' Circle Free Germany' ['Förderkreis Freies Deutschland'] that grew out of the Cologne/Bonn neo-Nazi scene in October 1992.
Ochsenberger, Walter: Activist in the Austrian NPD and founder of the banned 'Bund volkstreue Jugend'. Various trials for NS re-activity and flight in 1992. Arrested in 1993 trying to cross from Lithuania to Germany and handed over to the Austrian authorities.
Philipp, Karl: NPD functionary in the 1970s and 1980s. In 1990 he received a fine of DM 3,600 for incitement of the people and defamation. He is author in numerous neo-Nazi newspapers such as Die Bauernschaft and editor of his own press service that informs about denialist activities and trials. Philipp is part of the international denialist network, albeit less spectacular in his public appearance than Althans or Remer. He worked closely with Ahmed Rami of Radio Islam in Stockholm and his press service serves other RWE groups.
Rade, Reinhard: In 1990 GDR co-ordinator of the Republicans and their election organiser in Saxony. His militancy led to his expulsion from the party in the same year. In 1993 it became known that he was owner of Althans's AVÖ premises. Some time in 1993 Rade offered the Austrian Hans Jörg Schimanek lodgings at a time when Schimanek was sought by Austrian police in connection with a letter-bomb attack. Rade's mercenary activities in for example Croatia gave him contact to militant RWEs and neo-Nazis.
Reinthaler, Güther: 'Gauleiter Salzburg' and a leading figure in the VAPO. Reinthaler belonged to the so-called 'Citizens' Initiative Flat Renovation' ['Bürgerinitiative Wohnraumsanierung' - WOSAN] a substructure of the NA involved in organising the Weitlingstraße 122 in Berlin. Reinthaler took part in a NSDAP/AO meeting in July 1990 in Christophersen's exile of Kollund in Denmark, attended amongst others by Kühnen, Christian and Ursula Worch, Gottfried Küssel, and Gary Lauck.
Reisz, Heinz: Leader of a GdNF splinter group 'German Hessen' ['Deutsches Hessen'] made up of Kühnen faithfuls who split from the DA in 1991 over their dissatisfaction with the leadership of Frank Hübner. German Hessen had close contacts to the NL and the FAP. Reisz held the memorial speech for neo-Nazi martyr Rainer Sonntag in Dresden.
Remer, Ernst Otto: Commander of the Berlin Watch Regiment 'Groß Deutschland' that was critical in crushing the attempted revolt against Hitler on 20 July 1944. After the war Remer was a founding member and deputy leader of the 1952 banned SRP. From 1983 - 1989 Remer was founder and chairman of the neo-Nazi German Freedom Movement' ['Deutsche Freiheitsbewegung']. In the 1980s and 1990s Remer cultivated contacts in German and international revisionist and denialist circles. From 1991 to 1994 he was editor of his own Remer-Depesche. Following a series of judgements and appeals for incitement to racial hatred and spreading the Auschwitz lie from 1991 - 1993, resulting ultimately in a 22-month prison sentence, Remer fled to Spain in 1994. Remer's role as a Third-Reich war hero, his RWE activities after the war, and his propagation of Holocaust denial since the 1980s make him one of the most widely admired figures in the RWE spectrum, with wide contacts to all strands of RWE at home and abroad.
Rieger, Jürgen: RWE lawyer and member of the NF. As early as 1977 Rieger was a member of the 'Nordic Ring' ['Nordische Ring'] and responsible for the quarterly Nordic Future [Nordische Zukunft]. The paper published original texts from the Third Reich and extolled racial teachings and the virtues of the Waffen-SS. The 'Nordische Ring' propagated race as a law of nature. Rieger has connections to the IHR and is chairman of the esoteric 'Society for biological Anthropology, Eugenics, and Behavioural Research' ['Gesellschaft für biologische Anthropologie, Eugenik und Verhaltensforschung'] that likewise strives for a rehabilitation of racial teachings. Rieger's public engagement in the neo-Nazi scene led many members to shrink from active work for their cause.
Riehs, Otto: Prominent member of the DA splinter group 'German Hessen' ['Deutsches Hessen'] who spoke on the same platform as Gottfried Küssel, Thomas Dienel, and Irving in Halle in 1991.
Roeder, Manfred: In 1974 Roeder worked for Christophersen's Die Bauernschaft. He, Erwin Schönborn, and Christophersen were Kühnen's mentors. In 1977 Roeder was found guilty of disrupting a school performance of a re-worked Nazi propaganda piece, resisting arrest, and intentional bodily harm. In 1978 he fled to Switzerland and Austria. In 1979 he wrote a forward to Christophersen's Die Auschwitz-Lüge. In 1980 his 'German Action Group' ['Deutsche Aktionsgruppe'] undertook various bombing attacks and in the same year he was arrested and imprisoned in Germany. In the 1990s Roeder moved in revisionist and denialist circles.
Rudel, Hans-Ulrich: Most highly decorated German Luftwaffe hero during the war. After the war active in RWE groups and parties in the 1950s. By the 1970s a symbolic figure for neo-Nazis and 'old' RWEs alike.
Rudolf, Germar [later Scheerer, Germar]: A diploma chemist at the Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart. In 1991 Rudolf agreed to write an expert witness's report for the lawyer Hajo Hermann on the formation and delectability of cyanide compounds in the Auschwitz gas chambers. The report was to have been presented in defence of Otto Ernst Remer. In 1993 Rudolf was dismissed from the Max-Planck Institute. In the same year Rudolf's report was offered for sale by the English 'Cromwell Press'. In 1995 Rudolf was found guilty of incitement to racial hatred and incitement of the people. In 1996 Rudolf fled to Spain.
Schaller, Dr. Herbert: Defence lawyer to Walter Ochsenberger and Gerd Honsik. Schaller is a speaker at NF meetings and congresses.
Schönborn, Ewald: Founder in 1952 of the 'Working Community Nation Europe' ['Arbeitsgemeinschaft Nation Europa']. Later mentor to Michael Kühnen.
Schönborn, Meinolf: Leader and general secretary of the NF cadre party until 1992, when a faction under Andreas Pohl distanced themselves from him and founded the 'Social Revolutionary Workers' Front' ['Sozialrevolutionäre Arbeitsfront' - SrA]. Schönborn had called on NF members to set up 'National Task Forces' ['Nationalen Einsatzkommandos' - NEKs] following the examples of the notorious Freikorps in the early Weimar Republic. Schönborn was financially involved in the publisher's 'Klartext-Verlag' that published catalogues offering Nazi devotional objects, anti-Semitic stickers, and literature for military training. The NF cadre had close contacts in Germany to (amongst others) the NL in Hamburg, the Republicans, the 'German League for People and Homeland' ['Deutsche Liga für Volk und Heimat'] and abroad to the Ku Klux Klan.
Schönhuber, Franz: In 1942 Schönhuber joined the Waffen-SS, where he initially served with the 'Leibestandarte Adolf Hitler'. In 1981 heavy protests over his book I was there [Ich war dabei], that played down the crimes of the SS, led to his dismissal from Bavarian State television. From 1985 to 1994 he was leader of the Republicans where his mixture of right-wing populism, racial resentment, anti-Semitic allusions, and nationalism ('Germany first') made him a figurehead. A 1994 meeting with the DVU's Dr. Gerhard Frey resulted in his being voted out of office.
Schröcke, Prof. Helmut: Co-signatory in 1982 of the 'Heidelberg Manifesto' that expressed the fears of a group of Professors of a 'over-foreignisation' ['Uberfrembung'] of the German people.
Schwerdt, Frank: Former CDU member, area chairman of the Republicans, and chairman of the DL in Berlin-Brandenburg. 1992 treasurer of the Nationals.
Siegerist, Werner Joachim: A journalist, in 1986 Siegerist became chairman of the German Conservatives, a group on the right-wing fringes of the CDU and the Bavarian Christian Social Union. In June 1993 Siegerist campaigned in Latvia during the national elections for the Latvian Movement for National Independence, and seemed poised to take a government post. His statements and opinions in the Conservatives' circulars have incurred various court charges.
Stäglich, Wilhelm: Previous to 1945 Stäglich was part of a flak battery stationed for several months in Auschwitz. In 1972 Stäglich was a member of the Hamburg NPD. In 1974 he was subject to disciplinary proceedings for a publication in a RWE newspaper and in 1975 was retired from his job as a judge. In 1980 his book The Auschwitz Myth. Legends and Reality? [Der Auschwitz-Mythos. Legende und Wirklichkeit? (Grabert-Verlag, Tübingen, 1979)] was seized by the authorities. In 1987 he was stripped of his doctorate at the University of Göttingen. Stäglich has been a member of the Editorial Advisory Committee of the Institute for Historical Review's Journal of Historical Review and has contacts to both Althans and Christophersen.
Storr, Andreas: Former NPD member and press spokesman for the Nationals.
Sudholt, Dr. Gert: In 1970 an NPD functionary, Sudholt took over the running of the publisher's 'Druffel-Verlag' in 1972 and became chairman of the GfP in 1973. Since 1990 editor of the German Monthly [Deutsche Monatshefte]. In the same year he was fined for publishing an article by Robert Faurisson, a punishment increased to DM 10,000 and 6-months imprisonment in 1993. Sudholt belongs to the functionaries of the 1970s who increasingly replaced the 'old Nazi' generation in RWE. Following his revisionist activities in the early 1990s Sudholt turned to themes of Prussian traditions.
Swierczek, Michael: Former member of the JN's federal executive. A guitarist in a skinhead band during the 1980s Swierczek was a member of Kühnen's ANS/NA, where he lead the 'Comradeship 18' ['Kameradschaft 18'] in Munich. After the ban on the ANS/NA in 1984 he founded the south-German chapter of the KAH. He was editor of the New Front [Neue Front], paper of the GdNF splinter around Jürgen Mösler. In 1986 Swierczek was co-signatory to the 'Anti-Homosexual Manifesto' against Kühnen that led to the splitting of the GdNF. In 1989 he became deputy general secretary of the FAP and editor of its paper. In 1990 he left the party and founded the NO that was banned in December 1992. In March 1995 Swierczek received a suspended sentence for attempts to continue the ANS/NA through the FAP and the KAH. Swierczek is considered one of the most important functionaries in the militant neo-Nazi scene.
Tonningen, Florentine Rost von: Wife of the Dutch Reichsbank president during the German occupation, von Tonningen later played an active role in revisionist and RWE circles in Holland, Germany, and America, where she enjoys something of a cult status.
Walendy, Udo: In 1963 Walendy founded the 'Publisher's for Research into National Customs and Contemporary History' ['Verlag für Volkstum- und Zeitgeschichtsforschung'] in Vlotho. In 1964 he was a candidate for the NPD and member of the NPD executive. In 1979 appeared as a speaker at the first IHR revisionist conference and in 1986 joined the 'Editorial Advisory Committee' of The Journal of Historical Review. Walendy was the publisher in Germany of Arthur C. Butz's Hoax of the Twentieth Century and Richard Harwood's Did Six Million Really Die? He also assumed publication of Christophersen's Die Auschwitz-Lüge from the 'Kritik-Verlag'. As well as his own books from 1975 Walendy edited his journal Historische Tatsachen. In 1996 Walendy was sentenced for defamation of the memory of the dead and incitement of the people.
Wendt, Christian: Regional press speaker for the FAP in Berlin-Brandenburg in 1990. Wendt later became chief journalist in the Nationals' newspaper the Berlin-Brandenburger Zeitung.
Wickert, Ingrid: Leader of a GdNF group 'Action Protection of Life' ['Aktion Lebensschutz']. The group used ecological and biological ideas to propagate a form of racial purity or racial protection for white Aryans.
Wiesel, Stephan: Together with Althans, Knecht, and Niemann, one of the most prominent members of the 'Freundeskreis Ernst Zündel'.
Witte, Dr. Bernd: Former area chairman of the right-wing conservative 'German Social Union' ['Deutsche Soziale Union' - DSU] and later member of the Republicans with close personal contacts to the 'German League for People and Homeland' ['Deutsche Liga für Volk und Heimat' - DL]. In 1991 chairman of the Nationals, an election body originally founded in Berlin-Lichtenberg under the title 'Wählergemeinschaft "Wir sind das Volk!" - an earlier attempt to unite such disparate entities as the DSU with the neo-Nazi NA. The Nationals' program was extremely nationalistic, racist, and marked by an militant hatred of foreigners. Stated aim was to re-inculcate German youth with a 'national historical consciousness', i.e. to free them from the Allied 'Victors mentality'.
Worch, Christian: Worch began his neo-Nazi activities in 1974 when he founded the ANS in Hamburg together with Kühnen. In 1980 Worch received a 3-year prison sentence for various political crimes. After the ban on the ANS/NA Worch became a leading member of the GdNF and helped run its newspapers. From 1989 to 1995 he was one of the key organisers of the annual Rudolf-Hess Memorial March. In 1990 he took part in a meeting of the NSDAP/AO in Kollund, Denmark. After Kühnen's death Worch belonged to the leaders of the GdNF, and from 1993 was deputy chairman of the NL. In November 1994 Worch received a 2-year sentence for contravening the ban on the ANS/NA. Worch is amongst the most experienced and prominent functionaries of the neo-Nazi scene in Germany, and since Kühnen's death took on a role as a national co-ordinator for GdNF marches and meetings.
Wulff, Thomas ("Steiner"): Former deputy regional chairman of the FAP and founding member in March 1989 of the Hamburg NL. Wulff was involved in grounding the NL in east Germany in 1990.