ایروینگ در مقابل لیپستادت
David Irving, Holocaust Denial, and his Connections to Right Wing Extremists and Neo-National Socialism (Neo-Nazism) in Germany: Electronic Edition, by Hajo FunkeTable of Contents
|<< 5.6 OPC observations 1991...||< 5.1 1989: 'German histori...||5.8 OPC observations 1992... >||5.9 1993: expulsion >>|
5.7 1992: the 'International Campaign for Real History' falters.
5.7.1.Irving was in Germany at least four times in 1992; from 13[?] - 23 March, 3-18 May, in June briefly on his way to Moscow, and 10 -15[?] September. Again diary entries are missing, namely the entries for February 24 to March 22, and 10 and 11 (partially) May.
5.7.2.In an unusual move, Irving took the initiative into his own hands in attempting to organise the year's tours. On 1 January, Irving sent a circular letter to his contacts in Germany offering his services ['...ich stelle mich gern zu Verfügung'] and advising them of his availability during the forthcoming year. The letter went out to Günter Deckert, Christian Worch, Karl Höffkes, Klaus Ewald, Dr. Gerd Sudholt, Dr. Dreher [who passed it on to Dill406], Renate Werlberger, Carl-Arthur Bühring, Joachim Siegerist, Lars de Flon, Pedro Varela, Althans, Arwed Sader, Thies Christophersen, Michael Swierzeck, Dr. Michael Koll, and Andreas Jahrow.407
5.7.3.The March tour was organised by Worch and Michael Swierczek (who was meant to organise two meetings in South Germany), with help from Zündel.408 On 13 March Irving had planned to arrive in Munich and wanted to pick up books from Althans's book store.409 On 14 March Irving spoke to the DVU in Passau.410
5.7.4.On 15 March Irving spoke in Hetendorf [Lüneburger Heide] near Hamburg on the destruction of Dresden, under the auspices of a "Dresden-Holocaust-Monument" project, thought up by Zündel and Worch.411 Worch had written to Irving in January trying to interest him in the project. In the process he ruminated on the day-to-day problems in Germany
The year begins for me with stress: street fighting got out of hand at Michael Kühnen's funeral, only the day after renewed confrontation with the left in Wilhelmshaven (but there without brawls), yesterday the news that Gottfried Küssel had been arrested in Vienna...412
5.7.5.In trying to interest Irving for the project, Worch explained that one of his problems was that although he could easily gather a 'powerful' ['schlagkräftiges'] public and although he could protect halls, speakers, and public against 'enemy attacks' [feindliche Angriffe'] his 'powerful' public was not usually 'affluent' ['zahlungskräftig']. This was the job of Harder for example, or the people around the NPD, DVU, Republicans, and the independent national-conservatives, entities that could attract older people who paid an entry fee.
5.7.6.Worch added that the project had an important role for NL. 'It would be no problem with precisely such a project if the more radical wing, represented by me, unite with the more reserved moderate wing.' He suggested Irving speak in Hetendorf where there were some 'middle-class national associations, that are partly scared' ['bürgerlich-nationalen Vereinen, die Leilweise ängstlich sind.']. For instance an event with Fred Leuchter would be too dangerous for them.
5.7.7.If Irving had any scruples about the politics of his role, he repressed them in appearing.413
5.7.8.On 16 March Irving spoke at the Bonn university, as arranged by the AVÖ's Stephan Wiesel.414 This is an important speech because the contents of Irving's stock speeches would seem to have remained constant. In a report on the speech Dr. Michael Koll reported Irving as having said,
Main thesis: "In 18 months the horrific episode with the gas chambers finished." Irving referred to the fact that earlier predictions of his had come true.
"When this pack of lies (i.e. the "Holocaust" - M.K.) collapses, it will be very embarrassing for German politicians". The Germans payments for "gaschambers that did not exist" will be stopped and
"without this money the state of Israel will collapse".
The Jews according to Irving, have to free themselves from the Holocaust legend, "otherwise there will be a wave of anti-Semitism".
Concepts like "final victory", "total victory", "total truth" fall hard on the ears. [...] Quote Irving: "When Auschwitz falls then the Jews have lost the battle".415
5.7.9.On 19 March Irving would appear to have tried to speak in Ausburg, at a meeting arranged by Michael Swierczek.416 This might coincide with one of the meetings attributed to Irving in the VSB for 1992, which recorded Irving speaking to an NO meeting in Engen/Welschingenin near Konstantz in March 1992.417 On 23 March Irving breakfasted with Zündel in Munich.418
5.7.10.In May Irving announced his intention to 'continue...his "International Campaign for Real History" in the FRG with speeches in Berlin, Munich, and Stuttgart.'419 On 4 May Irving gave a press conference in Munich.420 The room was booked for Irving by Althans.421 The hotel 'Bayerischer Hof' cancelled the room on learning that Althans had booked it on Irving's behalf and the press conference had to take place elsewhere.422 On 5 May Irving appeared before a Munich court, where he was fined DM 10,000 (see below).
5.7.11.During 1991 there had been new attempts to organize a bigger neo-Nazi camp, that would also include members of the Republicans, the NPD, and others. On the 31 October 1991 a new party was formed in Villingen-Schwennigen called the German League for People and Home [Die Deutsche Liga für Volk und Heimat - DLVH]. In Berlin the neo-Nazis around the DLVH organized a group to stand for elections, called 'We Are The People' ['Wir sind das Volk']. Early in 1992, they re-named themselves 'the Nationals' together with a group of known neo-Nazis like Peter Boche, Dr. Bernd Witte, Frank Schwerdt and Andreas Storr (the latter from the JN) and together they intended to stand in the forthcoming Berlin elections.423> Thilo Kabus explained the change of name to Irving.
To steer round the guile of the Berlin electoral law a change of our name to "the Nationals" was necessary. Independently of this the number of members and sympathisers has approximately tripled. So everything is getting better.424
5.7.12.As part of their campaign to profile themselves in the forthcoming Berlin local elections a big rally was organized for the 9 May 1992, the day after the anniversary of the unconditional surrender of 1945. The venue was provocatively to be the former communist museum dedicated to the surrender in Berlin-Karlshort.425 Irving was announced as the star speaker.426 In planning the rally Irving had long been in contact with prominent members of the Nationals, such as Dr. Bernd Witte, Thilo Kabus, and Frank Schwerdt.427
5.7.13.Ultimately the rally was cancelled. This would seem to have been for a number of reasons, not all of them to do with Irving.428 As far as Irving was concerned, it was intended to ban his speech. 429 But Salomon had written to Irving informing him that because of developments the organisers were of the opinion that they did not want to involve Irving in the 'incalculable risks' that had come up.430
5.7.14.After a total defeat in the local elections, the strategy of the Nationals was altered and a decision was made to expand through decentralization and to concentrate on recruitment of youngsters. In the following years, this group became one of the successful organizers of the neo-Nazi Comradeship and adhered to the concept of so-called 'nationalbefreite Zonen', freed national zones, where foreigners were driven out.431
5.7.15.The diary record for 10 and 11 May is mostly missing. A journalist for the Independent suggested that Irving spoke in Poland instead, and was then off to Auschwitz. 'Yesterday, he was due to address 800 Germans in Oppeln, a small town in Poland. [...] After that [meeting in Oppeln] he planned to head for Auschwitz to "have another look at the place" and, no doubt, to strengthen his conviction that the gas chambers there are fakes erected after the war for the benefit of tourists and those "clever opponents" seeking financial retribution from the German state.'432 To Althans Irving conveyed that he would be in Dresden.433
5.7.16.On 11 May Irving ate dinner with Stephan Niemann, functionary in the AVÖ.434 From 12 to 14 Irving recorded with Althans his plea ['Schlußwort'] of his Munich trial 'which we shall now market as a propaganda tool.'435
5.7.17.On 15 May Irving was in Echterdingen, outside where Stuttgart Irving's tour started to falter
Peter Müller broke to me here the news that the police have in writing banned tomorrow's function at Sindelfingen Holiday Inn. Sicne [Since] they cite "Auschwitz" as the motive, it is plain that the unauthorised National Offensive leaflet issued "from Munich" (I.e. by Althans!), which already muddled up the starting time, starting 3 p.m. instead of 5 p.m., is to blame. The leaflet gave no topic. I am furious. [...] I remain stoical, however, and hope another location can be found. Saur (NO) states: "Herrenberg", and by fax (for security) he informed us the location, Cafe Neumann'436
5.7.18.A meeting with the NO in Sindelfingen, near Stuttgart, on 16 May suffered a similar fate.437 The meeting had been organised with Hans Joachim Dill, Klaus Ewald, and Peter Müller.438 Klaus Ewald had assured Irving that Dill could 'make a storage hall available, in which Ernst Zündel and Fred Leuchter spoke on 3 November 1991' if the worst came to the worst.439
...arrived at Holiday Inn, Sindelfingen, near Stuttgart. Here the manager whose staff had told us last night there was no problem, we could set up at 3 p.m., announced the meeting would not take place; no, not banned by the hotel, so they would not refund the rent; nor allowed either. Klaus Ewald arrived, got nowhere with them either. So we headed for the alternative venue [venue] at Herrenberg, 22km away. The Kripo [criminal police] arrived 5 minutes later, and in due course they banned the mee[ti]ng there. [...] I agreed to address a meeting of valiant remnants in a field 5km from Böblingen, and played to them the tape of my Schlußwort [plea] (which resulted in 13 sales immediately.)440
5.7.19.After the disaster Dill wrote to Irving that 'We will thoroughly discuss the lessons to be learnt out of this with Ernst Zündel. Meetings only in private circles with the registration of a topic which is not contestable. Only personal invitations...'441 Irving replied 'That really was an unlucky week! Five meetings in the FRG, all cancelled by the police.'442
5.7.20.On 17 May disaster struck again for Irving in Schliersee where he had been booked to speak by Althans.443
Arrived at Schliersee Bahnhof 12:30 p.m.; Althans arrived twenty minutes later, and told that a "catastrophe" occurred here too, namely the Kripo had arrived at 9:2 a.m. here and told the organisers not to let me speak. They of course knew nothing of my planned presence. Kripo knew more than they did. The 300 people at tables cheered as I walked in, but organiser confirmed to me that the police ban made it impossible for them to let me speak, as they depended on the town to let them have the hall each year...So it looks like the fifth meeting this tour is also K.O.d. [knocked out] I am fuming.444
5.7.21.Irving stayed overnight on the AVÖ premises in Munich.445 In retrospect Irving was clear in his mind where the roots of disaster lay, and it was certainly not due to his own utterances. He wrote to Renate Werlberger of the Munich NPD '...my last journey to Germany simply a wash out. Five events all banned by the police with different excuses. I have Mr. Althans, better said the NO to thank for that.'446 To Zündel he wrote 'I don't believe that I will speak for the Nat.[ionale] Liste, Nat.[ionale] Offensive or the AVÖ again. The two weeks (costs: 12,000,--) brought nothing in. Everything banned, mostly caused through stupidity.'447
5.7.22.Obviously not the politics of such groups, but their lack of organisational skills was what disturbed Irving.
5.7.23.On 5 June Irving stayed in Germany briefly on his way to the Moscow archives, squeezing in a meeting in Hamburg for Ulrich Harder.448 Sometime in June Irving had also agreed to attend a think tank ['Denkfabrik'] in Munich at the behest of the 'the German Conservatives ['Die Deutschen Konservativen'] of Joachim Siegerist, as mediated by Dr. Manfrid Dreher.449 The event was cancelled.450 On 12 June Irving in was Germany on his return from the Moscow archives.451 The next day Irving flew from Munich to Rome, where he was promptly deported back to Munich. In Munich again (Irving was surprised that the Italians had not alerted the German authorities to his return) he spoke with Zündel at a meeting arranged by Althans.452 On the 14 Irving met Zündel again to plan his forthcoming Canadian tour.453
5.7.24.On 11 September 1992 Irving was to have spoken to the Munich NPD on the Goebbels diaries, but received a speaking ban.454 On 12 September Thies Christophersen had invited Irving to attend a conference organised by him in Antwerp455 Irving accepted and drove to Antwerp with Pedro Varelax, Althans, and friend Thomas [Dienel?].456 Zündel and Worch also attended the conference, where Irving spoke on 'Nuremberg.'457 There are no nearer details of the conference. On 13 September Irving had planned to speak at a NPD meeting in Cologne.458 On 14 September Irving planned to speak in Aachen, but apparently the meeting was cancelled 'by the organisers.'459
406. Dr. Manfrid Dreher, 9 January 1992.
407. Irving to Christian and Ursula Worch, 1 January 1992; Irving to Karl Höffkes, January 1992; Irving to Klaus Ewald, 1 January 1992; list, 'letter overleaf sent to the following...,' n.d., 2 pp.
408. Irving to Christian Worch, 20 January 1990; Christian Worch to Irving 20 January 1992; Christian Worch to Irving, 22 January 1992. See also Christian Worch to Irving, 26 February 1992.
409. Irving to Ewald Althans, 1 March 1992. To Worch he wrote that he would fly from Austria to Passau. See Irving to Christian Worch, 9 March 1992.
410. Christian Worch to Irving, 22 January 1992; Christian Worch to Irving 26 February 1992.
411. Christian Worch to Irving, 8 January 1992; Christian Worch to Irving, 22 January 1992; Christian Worch to Irving, 24 February 1992; Irving to Christian Worch, 9 March 1992; Christian Worch to Irving, 10 March 1992. See also Irving to Ernst Zündel 10 January 1992, saying he does not think it appropriate that he as an Englishman campaign against the Harris monument in London, but he could help in Germany. Irving to Christian [Worch], 8 January 1992, the same.
412. 'Für mich beginnt das Jahr mit Streß: Ausufernde Straßenschlachten bei der Beisetzung von Michael Kühnen, gleich am Tag darauf erneute Konfrontation mit den Linken in Wilhelmshaven (da aber ohne Schlägerei), gestern die Nachricht, daß Gottfried Küssel in Wien verhaftet worden sei...' Christian Worch to Irving, 8 Jaanuary 1992.
413. 'Gerade bei einem solchen Projekt wird es kein Problem sein, wenn der durch mich repräsentierte eher radikale Flügel sich mit dem eher zurückhaltend-gemäßigten Flügel zusammenschließt.' Ibid.
414. Irving to Dr. Michael Koll, 14 January 1992. See also Irving to Dr. Michael Koll; Christian Worch to Irving, 22 January 1992; Dr. Michael Koll to Professor Dan Diner, 22 March 1992, enclosing a report on Irving's speech in Bonn of 16 March 1992, dated 17 March 1992.
415. 'Hauptthese: "In 18 Monaten ist der Spuk mit den Gaskammern vorbei". Irving beruft sich darauf, daß schon frühere Voraussagen von ihm eingetroffen seen.'/ "Wenn dieses Lügengebäude (d.i. der "Holocaust" - M.K.) einstürt zt, dann wird es für deutsche Politiker sehr peinlich". Die deutschen Zahlungen für "Gaskammern, die es nicht gegeben hat", werden eingestellt und:/ "ohne dieses Geld klappt der Staat Israel zusammen"./ Die Juden - so Irving - müssen sich selber von der Holocaust-Legende freimachen, "sonst gibt es eine Welle des Antisemitismus"./ [...]/Bemerkung: / Begriffe wie "Endsieg", "totaler Sieg", "totale Wahrheit" klingen hart in den Ohren. [...] Zitat Irving: "Wenn Auschwitz fällt, dann ist für die Juden die Schlacht verloren".Dr. Michael Koll, report ['Kurzbericht'] on Irving's speech in Bonn of 16 March 1992, dated 17 March 1992, enclosed in Dr. Michael Koll to Professor Dan Diner, 22 March 1992,
416. Swierczek wrote to him asking for a copy of his police 'Bescheid' enclosing a copy of the one he (Swierczek) had received. See Michael Swierczek to Irving, 27 March 1992. See also the itinary planned for Irving in Christian Worch to Irving, 22 January 1992.
417. Verfassungsschutz-Bericht, Niedersachsen, 1992, pp. 40 and 65.
418. Diary entry, 23 March 1992.
419. 'Anschließend an diesen Gerichtstermin setzt Herr Irving seinen "International Campaign for Real History" in der BRD fort mit Reden in Berlin, München, und Stuttgart.' Irving, Press Release, 29 April 1992.
420. Irving, Press Release, 29 April 1992; diary entry, 4 May 1992.
421. Ewald Althans to Irving, 28 April 1992.
422. Münschener Zeitung, "Hotel sagt Konferenz mit David Irving ab,' 5 May 1992; Suddeutsche teitung, 'Hotel verweist Irving des Saals,' 5 May 1992.
423. Wagner 1994: p. 43
424. 'Um die Tücken des Berliner Wahlgesetzes zu umschiffen, war eine Änderung unseres Namens in "Die Nationalen" notwendig. Unabhängig davon hat sich unsere Mitglieder und Sympathi santenzahl seit meinem letzten Schreiben ungefähr verdreifacht. Es geht also aufwärts.' Thilo Kabus to Irving, 1 February 1992.
425. Benedict, pp. 130f; Bernd Holthusen and Michael Jänecke, Rechtsextremismus in Berlin. Aktuelle Erscheinungsformen, Ursachen, Gegenmaßnahmen (Marburg, 1994), p. 129.
426. Thilo Rabus to Irving, 4 December 1991. See also Irving to Ewald Althans, 16 April 1992.
427. Diary entry, unidentifiable [5 May 1992?]; Irving to Ulrich Harder, 22 December 1991; Ulrich Harder to Irving, 29 March 1992; Frank Schwerdt to Irving, 3 March 1992; Irving to Thilo Kabus, 12 December 1991; Thilo Kabus to Irving, 1 February 1992.
428. '...phoned Christian Worch, what does he know about Thilo Kabus etc. He says Nationale Initiative hat sich auseinandergestritten [squabbled itself apart], but he thinks Karlshorst is going ahead. Don't like the sound of that. He will try to locate Dr. Witte and phone me back today or tommorow. [Sounds like Berlin may be off, then.]'. Diary entry, 4 May 1992. Insertion Irving's. See also diary entry, 8 May 1992. '...phoned Bridge back [of the Independent's Berlin office who had phoned Althans] (he phoned IfZ); he says Die Nationalen in Berlin claimed to him I would be speaking there tomorrow.I: not so (but phoned Salomon in Berlin, who confirmed not.)'
429. 'Vollzug des Ausländergesetzes (AuslG) Ausweisung aus der Bundesrepublik Deutschland', n.d., p. 10.
430. 'Herrn Irving in die inzwischen kaum kalkulierbaren Risiken nicht einbeziehen sollten.' Thomas Salomon to Christian Worch, 6 May 1992.
431. The Nationals were successful in various east German towns like Cottbus and Guben. According to a strategic paper on national zones, these zones were declared spaces, in which 'we de facto exercise power, in which we are able to control and punish our enemies and those who deviate, and to support our comrades.' ['...nationalbefreite Zonen sind „Freiräume“ in denen wir faktisch die Macht ausüben, in denen wir sanktionsfähig sind, d.h. wir bestrafen Abweichler und Feinde, wir unterstützen Kampfgefährtinnen und Gefährten.']. Benedict, p. 134.
432. 'Irving's dangerous liaison with Germany' by Adrian Bridge, The Independent, 10 May 1992.
433. Irving to Ewald Althans, 16 April 1992.
434. Diary entry, 11 May 1992. Niemann went on to build up the Freundeskreis Freies Deutschland in Bonn (Mecklenburg, p. 219).
435. Diary entries, 12, 13 and 14 May 1992. See also Ernst Zündel to Irving, 21 May 1992. 'Althans is here. We are working on a box design for the Münschener Prozess.'
436. Diary entry, 15 May 1992.
437. Verfassungsschutz-Bericht, Baden Württemberg, 1992, p. 65.
438. Peter Müller to Irving, 28 April 1992.
439. 'Ein Lagerraum zur Verfügung, in dem Ernst Zündel und Fred Leuchter am 03. November 91 sprachen...' Klaus Ewald to Irving, 14 January 1992.
440. Diary entry, 16 May 1992.
441. 'Die Lehre hieraus werden wir gründlich mit Ernst Zündel besprechen: Veranstaltungen nur noch im privaten Kreis mit der Angabe eines nicht angreifbaren Themas. Nur noch persönliche Einladungen, wie wir das übrigens in Echterdingen machen.' Hans Joachim Dill to Irving, 18 May 1992. Dill enclosed a copy of a letter from Dr. Manfrid Dreher to Dill, which Dreher had requested he convey to Irving.
442. 'Das war tatsächlich eine Pechwoche! Fünf Veranstaltungen in der BRD, alle von der Polizei verboten.' Irving to Hans Joachim Dill, 21 May 1992.
443. Ewald Althans to Irving, 28 April 1992; diary entry, 12 May 1992. See diary entry, 19 April 1992.
444. Diary entry, 17 May 1992. The elipse is Irving's.
445. Diary entry, 17 May 1992.
446. '...meine letzte Deutschlandsreise eine einfache Pleite! Fünf Veranstaltungen, alle polizeilich verboten unter verschiedenen Vorwänden. Das habe ich Herr Althans, bzw. der NO zu verdanken.' Irving to Renate Werlberger, 21 May 1992.
447. 'Ich glaube nicht, daß ich wieder für Nat. Liste, Nat. Offensive oder AVÖ reden werde. Die zwei Wochen (Kosten: 12.000,--) brachten nichts ein. Alles verboten, meistens durch Dummheiten ausgelöst.' Irving to Ernst Zündel, 22 May 1992.
448. Diary entry, 19 May 1992; diary entry, 5 June 1992; diary entry 6 July 1992.
449. Irving to Joachim Siegerist, 30 December 1991; Joachim Siegerist to Irving, 14 January 1992; Irving to Joachim Siegerist, 20 January 1992; Irving to Joachim Siegerist, 21 May 1992.
450. Joachim Siegerist to Irving, 27 May 1992.
451. Diary entry, 16 June 1992; diary entry 12 June 1992.
452. Diary entry, 13 June 1992. See Irving to Ernst Zündel, 1 June 1992. '...in Munich* June 15, 16.' [* 'Europäische Hof']. See also Ernst Zündel to Irving, 1 June 1992. 'If possible I'll try to extend my stay a few days to meet with you in München.'
453. Diary entry, 14 June 1992.
454. Flyer, 'Die bayerischen Nationaldemokraten laden ein...' n.d. See also Irving to Renate Werlberger, 12 July 1992; Renate Werlberger to Irving, 22 July 1992; Irving to Renate Werlberger, 24 July 1992.
455. Document 1589, Thies Christophersen to Irving, 28 July 1992. See also document 1590, Irving to Christophersen, 28 July 1992 and document 1602, Christophersen to Irving 5 August 1992; Thies Christophersen to Irving 22 August 1992. See also Irving to Ernst Zündel, 5 September 1992. 'Ernst, I believe we meet in Antwerp on Saturday? I certainly hope to be there - a long drive up from Munich overnight.'
456. Thies Christophersen to Irving, 22 August 1992; diary entry, 12 September 1992.
457. Diary entry, 12 September 1992; Irving to Ernst Zündel, 5 September 1992.
458. Dr. Michael Koll to Professor Dan Diner, 22 March 1992, enclosing a report on Irving's speech in Bonn of 16 March 1992, dated 17 March 1992; Dr. Michael Koll to Irving, 20 May 1992; Irving to Renate Werlberger, 12 July 1992. See also diary entry, unidentifiable. 'Spoke with Susie Töpler about Monday's cancelled meeting. She said the local branch had got into financing trouble and then "what with Rostock" etc., N.B. they had decided to call off the function.' Irving was also booked to talk to the Bundesheimatgruppe Schweidnitz in Reutlingen. See Walter Fülbier to Irving, 10 March 1992.
459. Irving to Renate Werlberger, 12 July 1992; diary entry, 12 September 1992.
|<< 5.6 OPC observations 1991...||< 5.1 1989: 'German histori...||5.8 OPC observations 1992... >||5.9 1993: expulsion >>|