Irving v. Lipstadt
David Irving, Hitler and Holocaust Denial: Electronic Edition, by Richard J. EvansTable of Contents
|< (A) Irving's defence||(C) Irving's suppression... >||(D) Irving's misrepresen... >>|
(B)Irving's misrepresentation and misunderstanding of the sources: the Goebbels diary entry of 27 April 1942 and Hitler's table talk of 15 May 1942
1. In his table talk on 15 May 1942, as recorded by Henry Picker, Hitler stated that the Jews were being deported to the East, and admitted that there was apparently some opposition to this policy among the German population:
Our so-called bourgeoisie is lamenting today over just the same Jew who back then [in 1918] carried out this stab in the back, when he is pushed out to the East. The remarkable thing about it is that this bourgeoisie didn't however concern itself with the fact that 250,000 to 300,000 German people were emigrating from Germany a year, and about 75 per cent of the German emigrants to Austalia already died during the journey. No stratum of the population is more stupid in political things as this so-called bourgeoisie. If for reasons of state one renders a definite racial pest harmless, for example by beating him to death, then the entire bourgeoisie cries out that the state is a violent state. If however the Jew drives the German person with juridicial chicanery tobs the German person of his professional existence, takes his house and home from him, destroy his family, then finally drives him to emigration and the German person then loses his life on the journey to his emigration destination, then the bourgeoisie calls the state in which that is possible a state founded on the rule of law, because this entire tragedy has indeed been played out completely within the context of the possibilities offered by the law.
That the Jew as a parasite is the person on earth most able to withstand any climate, and in contrast to the German settles down in Lapland just as in the tropics, is considered by not a single one [of the people] who weeps his crocodile tears after a Jew transported off to the East. In this case, as a rule, however, we have to do in the case of this philistine with a person who imagines he stands firmly on the basis of the Bible, although, however, he does not know that according to the reports of the Old Testament, the Jew cannot be harmed either by a sojourn in the desert nor a march through the Red Sea.30
2.A related statement was recorded by Goebbels on 27 April 1942 in his diary. Here, Hitler spoke about 'pushing Jews out of Europe', which since the failure of the Madagascar plan in the autumn of 1941 had meant deportations to the East into the former Soviet territory:
I talk through the Jewish question extensively once more with the Führer. His standpoint with regard to this problem is unrelenting. He wants to force the Jews out of Europe absolutely. That is also right thus. The Jews have brought so much suffering upon our part of the earth that the hardest punishment that one can impose upon them is still too lenient. Himmler is pressing ahead at the moment with the great resettlement of the Jews from the German towns to the Eastern ghettos.31
3. These quotes do not show, as Irving has claimed, that Hitler was completely ignorant of the extermination of the Jews at this time. In this diary entry, Goebbels describes Hitler as radical and unrelenting, just as he does in his diary entry of 27 March 1942. By this time, Goebbels already knew that 'resettlement' meant that the Jews were being exterminated in the East (as proven by his diary entry of 27 March 1942). So it is unlikely that he would have characterised Hitler's views as "radical,"(27 March 1942 and "unrelenting" (27 April 1942) if Hitler in reality had only been aiming to push the Jews out of Western and Central Europe, and not to kill them as well. This characterisation of Hitler as radical and unrelenting makes sense only if Hitler, like Goebbels, also knew that 'pushing the Jews out of Europe' meant killing them when they got to the East.
4. This conclusion suggests that at his table talk of 15 May 1942, some three weeks after Goebbels diary entry of 27 April 1942, Hitler was well aware of the fate of the Jews in the East, despite his suggestion that Jews were able to 'withstand any climate'. For, whatever Hitler's reasons were for this absurd and cynical claim (which he had already made in similar form on 4 April 1942)32, Jews transported to the East faced a much worse enemy than a hostile climate: they had to face the Einsatzgruppen, the SS gassing facilities and other agencies of the Nazi killing machine, all hell-bent upon exterminating the Jews. In his table talk, Hitler even hinted at the violent fate of the Jews when he referred to 'racial pests' or 'Volksschädlinge' being beaten to death. The context of this remark, with its juxtaposition to the (completely unfounded) claim that Jews had driven Germans from Germany in conditions in which many German emigrants died, clearly indicates that it was intended to refer to the killing of Jews.
5. Even this brief investigation makes clear that Irving's claim that these sources show that Hitler was ignorant of the extermination of the Jews is untenable. This conclusion is supported by further examination of the documents. What the Goebbels diary entry of 27 April 1942 and Hitler's table talk of 15 May 1942 have in common is that Hitler speaks about the concrete fate of the Jews in rather general terms. Thus, he refers to Jews being 'pushed out to the East', Jews being 'transported off to the East', and Jews being forced 'out of Europe'. What did these terms stand for and why were they employed by the Nazis? There was a central ambiguity in both Hitler's recorded private conversations and in his and Nazi propaganda. Genocide and extermination were invoked and justified in general terms, while the political reality and the detailed mechanics of the extermination programme were treated as a state secret and generally only referred to in coded language such as 'transported off to the East'. There are a large number of instances where Hitler spoke openly about exterminating the Jews, at a time when these mass killings were already taking place.
6. These statements by Hitler are recorded in a great number of different sources, ranging from comments he made in private meetings to statements he uttered in public speeches. Irving either ignores these examples, or distorts their significance (as this Report has already demonstrated in its examination of Irving's account of the Goebbels diary entry of 27 March 1942 and Irving's account of the Hitler table talk on 25 October 1941), or disputes their veracity. These statements clearly suggest that Hitler was not ignorant about the fate of the Jews and that he did not merely assume that they were being transported to the East. Despite the fact that Hitler was careful not to mention any specifics or details about the extermination programme set up in the East or give anything away about its manner of operation, what he said was quite clear in its general reference to what was going on.
7. Already on 19 August 1941, almost two months after the murders of Soviet Jews by the SS task forces had begun, Goebbels noted in his diary:
We speak about the Jewish problem. The Führer is convinced that his former prophecy in the Reichstag, that, if Jewry succeeded once more in provoking a world war, it would end with the annihilation of the Jews, is being confirmed. It is being rendered true in these weeks and months with a certainty that seems almost uncanny. In the East the Jews have to pay the price; in Germany they have paid it already in part and in future they will have to pay yet more. Their last refuge remains North America; and there they will also have to pay some time, sooner or later.34
8. In Hitler's table talk on 25 October 1941, as we have already seen, the following statement was recorded:
In the Reichstag, I prophesied to Jewry, the Jew will disappear from Europe if war is not avoided. This race of criminals has the two million dead of the [First World] war on its conscience, and now hundreds of thousands again. Nobody can tell me: But we can't send them into the morass! For who bothers about our people? It's good if the terror that we are exterminating Jewry goes before us...I'm forced to pile up an enormous amount of things myself; but that doesn't mean that what I take cognisance of without reacting to it immediately, just disappears. It goes into an account; one day the book is taken out. I had to remain inactive for a long time against the Jews too.35
9. In a meeting with the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem on 28 November 1941, Hitler explained (according to the official minutes) that 'Germany stood for uncompromising war against the Jews' and that when the German armies had reached the southern exit from the Caucasus, 'the Führer would on his own give the Arab world the assurance that its hour of liberation had arrived. Germany's objective would then be solely the destruction of the Jewish element residing in the Arab sphere under the protection of British power.'36 On 12 December 1941, a few days after the first Jews had been killed at the extermination camp set up in Chelmno, Hitler spoke about the Jews in front of the Gauleiter (noted down by Goebbels):
With reference to the Jewish question, the Führer is determined to clear the decks. He prophesied to the Jews that if they should once more bring about a world war, they would experience their own annihilation in doing so. That was no mere talk. The world war is there, the annihilation of Jewry must be the necessary consequence.37
10. Only two days after this speech, Hitler met with Alfred Rosenberg, the Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern territories, who showed him the manuscript of a speech he planned to make. As Rosenberg noted down on 16 December 1941, he [Rosenberg]'took the standpoint of not talking about the extirpation of Jewry. The Führer approved of this position and said, they had forced the war on us and they had brought destruction, it was no wonder if the consequences affected them first.'38
15. In his table talk on 25 January 1942, Hitler expressed sentiments similar to the ones at the table talk on 15 May 1942 discussed above:
If I take the Jews out today, then our bourgeoisie becomes unhappy: what is happening then with them? But have the same people troubled themselves about what would become of the Germans who had to emigrate? One must do it quickly, it is no better if I have one tooth pulled out by a few centimetres [sic] every three months -, when it is out, the pain is gone. The Jew has to get out of Europe. Otherwise we get no European understanding. He incites people the most, everywhere. In the end: I don't know, I'm colossally humane. The Jews were maltreated at the time of the Pope's rule in Rome. Up to 1830 eight Jews were driven through the city every year with donkeys. I am just saying, he has to go. If he collapses in the course of it, I can't help there. I only see one thing: absolute extermination, if they don't go of their own accord. Why should I look at a Jew with other eyes than at a Russian prisoner of war? Many are dying in the prison camps because we have been driven into this situation by the Jews. But what can I do about that? Why then did the Jews instigate the war?39
16. Hitler came back to his 'prophecy' of the extermination of the Jews in a widely-transmitted speech in the Reichstag on 30 January 1942. Irving merely comments that in his speech, Hitler 'reminded his audience of his "prophetic warning" to the world's Jews in 1939'.40 In fact, Hitler was much more explicit:
I have already pronounced it in the Reichstag on 1 September 1939 - and I guard myself against premature prophecies - , that this war will not end as the Jews imagine, namely that the European-Aryan peoples will be exterminated, but that the result of this war will be the annihilation of Jewry. For the first time the truly old Jewish law is being applied this time: 'an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth!'.41
17. Hitler came back to these same sentiments in the following month. In his diary on 15 February 1942, Goebbels recorded a conversation he had had the previous day with him:Nor was this the only such statement.
The Führer gives expression once again to his opinion that he is determined to clear out the Jews in Europe. One must not have any sentimental moods here. The Jews have earned the catastrophe which they are experiencing today. They will also experience their own annihilation. We must speed up this process with a cold ruthlessness, and we are thereby performing an inestimable service for humanity, which has suffered and been tortured by the Jews for millennia. This clear attitude of enmity towards the Jews must also be implemented in our own people against all rebellious groups. The Führer emphasises that explicitly, also again afterwards amongst the army officers, who can just remember that.
The great chances which this war is offering us are recognized in their entire import by the Führer. He is conscious today of the fact that he is fighting a battle of gigantic dimensions, and that the fate of the whole of civilized humanity depends on the outcome of this struggle.42
18. At Hitler's table talk on 22 February 1942, the following statement was recorded:
It is one of the greatest revolutions there has ever been in the world. The Jew will be identified! The same fight that Pasteur and Koch had to fight must be led by us today. Innumerable sicknesses have their origin in one bacillus: the Jew! Japan would also have got them if it had remained open any longer to the Jew. We will get well when we eliminate the Jew.43
19. On 24 February 1942 a statement by Hitler was announced to NSDAP party members in Munich which again made a reference to his 'prophecy':
Today the idea of our National Socialist, and that of the fascist revolution, have conquered great and powerful states, and my prophecy will find its fulfilment, that through this war Aryan humankind will not be annihilated, but the Jew will be exterminated. Whatever the struggle may bring with it or however long it may last, this will be its final result. And only then, with the removal of these parasites, will a long period of understanding between nations, and with it true peace, come upon the suffering world.44
20. These statements, made between the late Summer of 1941 and February 1942, clearly suggest that Hitler was well aware that Jews were not merely being deported to the East, but were being killed there. When he talked about the Jews, Hitler frequently referred to their murderous fate: as we have seen, he spoke repeatedly of their 'annihilation', 'destruction', 'extermination' and 'elimination' and also referred to the Jews going 'kaputt' and experiencing a 'catastrophe'.
21. Clearly, he gave no detailed descriptions of the killing programmes. It is important to note that leading Nazis, including Hitler, rarely spoke openly about the extermination of the Jews, but rather used euphemistic or coded language, such as 'resettlement in the East' when referring to the details of the extermination of the Jews. After the realisation that the Madagascar plan was unrealistic because of Britain's naval dominance, leading Nazi officials in spring 1941 apparently advanced the plan to transport the Jews 'to the East' into the territory of the Soviet Union, once it had been defeated by Germany. There, they would slowly die of hunger, or be worked to death.45 However, these plans were never realised, and by the spring of 1942 Jews from both Eastern and Western Europe were being systematically exterminated, mainly in the newly established extermination camps. Despite this reality, many Nazis continued to use terms like 'deportation to the East', when they were really talking about mass murder. This terminology no longer stood for the plan of actually transporting Jews to the former Soviet territory, but for extermination.
22. The element of secrecy surrounding the Final Solution was a central motive for this linguistic camouflage. All officials in the extermination camps were sworn to secrecy.46 The SS leader Heinrich Himmler referred to the extermination of the Jews on 4 October 1943 as 'a glorious page in our history and one that has never been written and can never be written'.47 On 25 September 1941, Hitler had decreed the 'Fundamental Order Number 1', which ordered that no member of a party, government or military agency was to be informed or seek to know more than was required for the enactment of his or her duties.48 This order for secrecy clearly covered the operational details of the 'final solution'. As Henry Picker, who had recorded many of Hitler's table talks, noted: 'Over state secrets, Hitler was totally uncommunicative. He told us nothing in his table talk about the extermination of the Jews in the concentration camps...His conversations nevertheless revealed his deep-rooted and fanatical hatred for all other races.'49
23. Historians have put forward various reasons why the Nazi leaders tried to keep the operational details of the extermination of the Jews secret. For instance, regarding Hitler's private conversations, the late Martin Broszat, for many years director of the Munich Institute for Contemporary History, pointed out that Hitler avoided speaking about the exterminations, and indeed did not have to, as he knew, 'what he could expect of his entourage'.50 The use of coded language at Hitler's lunch and dinner table avoided uncomfortable discussions and maintained a harmony among the guests which would have been disturbed by an admission of the detailed arrangements for the extermination of the Jews. As far as any public announcement was concerned, leading Nazis had become more careful about the impact of public statements of murder actions after details of the 'euthanasia' killings of the mentally and physically disabled had become known to a wider audience. In this case, the public disquiet about the killings had contributed to the temporary stop of the 'euthanasia' programme in 1941.51
24. Thus, in general, leading Nazis and other officials used coded terms when describing the programme for the extermination of the Jews. However, there are various known examples where the individuals involved themselves revealed what these terms really stood for. For instance, in his notorious speech to SS leaders in Posen on 4 October 1943, the SS leader Heinrich Himmler spoke of 'the Jewish evacuation programme, the extermination of the Jewish people', using the two as synonomous.52
25. Another example can be found in a statement by Adolf Eichmann, one of the leading bureaucrats in the Reich Security Head Office dealing with the extermination of the Jews. Eichmann was examined in 1961 by his defence lawyer during his trial in Jerusalem, and gave evidence on the use of technical language or euphemistic terms by the Nazis to avoid open reference to the killing of the Jews. Asked about the minutes of the Wannsee conference of 20 January 1942, which he had drawn up, Eichmann explained:
The minutes reproduce the essential points factually and correctly, but of course they are notword for-word minutes, because the, shall we say, certain excesses, a certain jargon that was used, had to be clothed in official words by me, and these minutes, I believe, were corrected 3 or 4 times by Heydrich.53
26. Thus, while the participants in the discussion openly talked about 'killing, elimination, and annihilation,54 the minutes drawn up by Eichmann refers only to the 'evacuation of the Jews to the East' and the 'final solution of the European Jewish Question'.55 Camouflage language was also used in the various reports by the Einsatzgruppen, which carried out the mass shootings of Jews in the occupied Soviet territory. However, in some of these reports, euphemistic terms like 'resettlement', 'deportation' and 'special treatment' are used interchangeably with terms like 'liquidation', 'executed', 'shot' and 'extermination'.56
27. Another such example is Goebbels's diary entry of 27 March 1942, which this Report has already examined above. Here, Goebbels had first noted that the Jews were being 'pushed out to the East', only to then explain later that this meant that 60% of these Jews were being exterminated (while keeping quiet about the details of the methods of extermination), and the rest 'put to work'. In his table talk on 15 May 1942, Hitler used precisely the same words as Goebbels. He spoke of Jews being 'pushed out to the East' and 'transported off to the East'.
28. In the light of Goebbels's diary entry of 27 March 1942, as well as the general comments made above on the use of coded language by leading Nazis, it is highly likely that Hitler knew perfectly well what the term stood for. Such language cannot be used as proof for Hitler's ignorance of the extermination. The evidence points very strongly indeed in the opposite direction to Irving's theses, and Irving is unable to deal with it except by blatant manipulation and suppression.
30. Das Bemerkenswerte daran sei, daß dieses Bürgertum sich seinerzeit aber nicht darum gekümmert habe, daß jährlich 250 000 bis 300 000 deutsche Menschen aus Deutschland auswanderten und ca. 75 Prozent der deutschen Auswanderer nach Australien bereits auf der Reise starben. Keine Bevölkerungsschicht sei in politischen Dingen blöder als dieses sogennante Bürgertum. Wenn man von Staats wegen einen ausgresprchenen Volksschädling unschädliche mache, zum Beispiel totschlage, dann schreie das ganze Bürgertum, der Staat sei ein brachialer Staat. Wenn aber der Jude den deutschen Menschen...zur Auswanderung treibe, und der deutsche Mensch dann auf der Fahrt nach seinem Auswanderungsziel sein Leben verliere, so nenne das Bürgertum den Staat, in dem das möglich sei, einen Rechtsstaat...'Um eben denselben juden, der damals diesen Dolchstoß geführt habe, lamentiere heute unser sogenanntes Bürgertum, wenn er nach dem Osten abgeschoben werde. 'Um eben denselben Juden, der damals diesen Dolchstoßgefürht habe, lamentiere heute under sogenanntes Bürgertum, wenn er nach dem Osten abgeschoben werde.'Das Bemerkenswerte daran sei, daß dieses Buürgertum sich seinerzeit aber nicht darum gekümmert habe, daß jährlich 250 000 bis 300 000 deutsche menshen aus Deutschland auswanderten und ca. 75 Prozent der deutschen Auswanderer nach Australien bereits auf der Reise starben. Keine Bevölkerungsshcicht sei in politischen Dingen blöderals dieses sogennante Bürgertum. Wenn man von Staats wegen einen ausgesprochenen Volksschädling unschädliche mache, zum Beispiel totschlage, dann schrei das ganze Bürgertum, der Staat sei ein brachialer Staat. Wenn aber der Jude den deutschen Menshen... ihn mit juristichen Spitzfindigkeiten um seine berufliche Existenz bringe, ihm Haus und Hof nehme, ihm seine Familie zerstuore, ihn so schließlich zur Auswanderung treibe, und der deutsche Mensch dann auf der Fahrt nach seinem Auswanderungsziel sein Leben verliere, so nenne das Bürgertum den Staat, in dem das möglich sei, einen Rechtsstaat... weil sich diese ganze Tragödie ja völlig im Rahmen juristischer Paragraphenmöglichkeiten abgespielt habe. Daßder Jude als Parasit der klimafesteste Mensch der Erde sei und sich im Gegensatz zum Deutschen in Lappland genauso wie in den Tropen einlebe, das bedenke natürlich kein einziger, der seine Krokodilstränen hinter einem nach dem Osten abtransportierten Juden herweine. Dabei handlet es sich bei diesem Spießaber in der Regel um einen Menschen, der sich auf seine Bibelfestigkeit etwas einbilde, trotzdem aber nicht wisse, daß nach den Berichten des Alten Testaments dem Juden weder ein Aufenthalt in der Wüste noch ein Marsch durchs Rote Meer etwas anhaben könne'; H. Picker, Hitlers Tischgespräche im Führenhauptquartier (Berlin, 1977), pp. 434-436.
31. 'Ich spreche mit dem Führer noch einmal ausführlich die Judenfrage durch. Sein Standpuckt diesem Problem gegenüber ist unerbitterlich. Er will die Juden absolut aus Europa herausdrängen. Das is auch richtig so. Die Juden haben unserem Erdteil so viel Leid zugefügt, daß die härteste Strafe, die man über sie verhängen kann, immer noch zu milde ist. Himmler betreibt augenblicklich die große Umsiedlung der Juden aus den deutschen Städten nach den östlichen Ghettos'; E. Frölich (ed.), Die Tagebücher von Joseph Geobbels, Teil II, Vol. 4 (Munich, 1996), p. 184. In his translation of this passage, Irving fails to translate the alst sentences; see Irving, Hilter's War (London, 1991), p. 465.
32. Picker recorded Hitler as saying that Jews were 'das klimafestete Wesen' and 'gediehen überall, sogar in Lappland und Sibirien'; Picker, Hitlers Tischgespräche (Berlin, 1997), p. 262
33. See D. Banker, 'The Use of Antisemitism in Nazi wartime propaganda', in M. Berenbaum, A. J. Peck (eds.), The Holocaust in History. The Known, the Unknown, the Disputed, and the Reexamined (Bloomington, Indianapolis, 1998), pp. 41-55; V. Ulrich '"Wir haben nichts davon gewußt" - Ein deutsches Trauma', 1999. Zeitschrift für Sozialgeschichte des 20. und 21. Jahrhunderts, vol. 4 (October 1991), p. 11-46.
34. Wir reden über das Judenproblem. Der Führer ist der Überzeugung, daß seine damalige Prophezeiung im Reichstag, daß, wenn es dem Judentum gelänge, noch einmal einen Weltkrieg zu provozieren, er mit der Vermichtung der Juden enden würde, sich bestätigt. Sie bewahrheitet sich in diesen Wochen und Monaten mit einer fast unheimlich anmutenden Sicherheit. Im Osten müssen die Juden die Zeche bezahlen; in Deutschland haben sie sie zum Teil schon bezahlt und werden sie in Zukunft nich mehr bezahlen müssen. Ihre letzte Zuflucht bleibt Nordamerika; und dort werden sie über kurz oder lang auch einmal bezahlen müssen' E. Frölich (ed.), Die Tagebücher von Joseph Geobbels, Teil II, Vol. 1 (Munich, 1996), p. 269.
35. 'Vor dem Reichstag habe ich dem Judentum prophezeit, der Jude werde aus Europa verschwinden, wenn der Krieg nicht vermieden bleibt. Diese Verbrecherrasse hat die zwei Millionen Toten des Weltkrieges auf dem Gewissen, jetzt wieder Hundertausende. Sage mir keiner: Wir können sie doch nicht in den Morast schicken! Wer kümmert sich denn um unsere Menschen? Es ist gut, wenn uns der Schrecken vorangeht,daß wir das Judentum ausrotten...Ich bin gezwungen, ungeheuer viel bei mir aufzuhäufen; das bedeutet aber nicht, daß in mir erlischt, was ich ohne gleich zu reagieren, zur Kenntnis nehme. Es kommt auf ein Konto; eines Tages wird das Buch herausgezogen. Auch den Juden gegenüber mußte ich lange tatenlos bleiben'; cited in W. Jochmann (ed.), Monologe in Führerhauptquartier 1941-44. Die Aufzeichnungen Heinrich Heims (Hamburg, 1980), pp. 106-108.
36. Record of the conversatoin betwen the Führer and the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem on 28.11.1941; Documents on German Forwign Policy 1918-1945, Series D, Vol. XIII, pp.881-885.
37. 'Bezüglich der Judenfrage ist der Führer entschlossen, reinen Tisch zu machen. Er hat den Juden prophezeit, daß, wenn sie noch einmal einen Weltkrieg herbeiführen würden, sie dabei ihre Vernichtung erleben würden. Das ist keine Phrase gewesen. Der Weltkrieg ist da, die Vernichtung des Judentums muß die notwendige Folge sein. Die Frage ist ohne jede Sentimentalität zu betrachten. Wir sind nicht dazu da, Mitleid mit den Juden, sondern nur Mitleid mit unserem deutschen Volk zu haben'; cited in E. Frö hlich (ed/), Die Tagebücher von Joseph Goebbels, Teil II, Vol. 1 2 (Munich, 1996), pp. 498, diary entry for 13.12.1941.
38. 'stände auf dem Standpunkt, von der Ausrottung des Judentums nicht zu sprechen. Der Führer bejahte dies Haltung und sagte, sie hätten uns den Krieg aufgebürdet und sie hätten die Zerstörung gebracht, es sei kein Wunder, wenn die Folgen sie zuerst träfen': Vermerk über Unterredung beim Führer am 14.12.1941, gez. Rosenberg v. 16.12.1941, BDC, SL 47 (F); cited in C. Gerlach,Krieg, Ernährung, Völkermord (Hamburg, 1998), pp. 121-2.
39. Wenn ich heute den juden herausnehme, dann wird unser Bürgertum unglücklich: was geschieht denn mit ihnen? Aber haben sich die Gleichen darum gekümmert, was aus den Deutschen werden würde, die auswandern mussten? Man muss es schnell machen, es ist nicht besser, wenn ich einen Zahn alle drei Monate um ein paar Zentimenter herausziehen lasse -, wenn er herrausen ist, ist der Schmerz vorbei. Der Jude muss aus Europa heraus. Wir kriegen sonst keine europäische Verständigung. Er hetzt am meisten überall. Letzten Endes: ich weiss nicht, ich bin kolossal human. Zur Zeit der päpstlichen Herrschaft im Rom sind die Juden mißhandelt worden. Bis 1830 wurden acht Juden jedes Jahr durch die Stadt getrieben, mit Eseln. Ich sage nur, er muss weg. Wenn er dabei kaputt geht, da kann ich nicht helfen. Ich sehe nur eines: die absolute Ausrottung, wenn sie nicht freiwillig gehen. Warum soll ich einen Juden mit anderen Augen ansehen als einen russischen Gefangenen? Im Gefangenenlager sterben Viele, weil wir durch die Juden in diese Lage hineingetrieben sind. Aber was kann denn ich dafür? Warum haben die Juden denn den Krieg angezettelt?': Hitler table talk on 25.1.1942, recorded by H. Heim; Third Supplemental Discovery List by Irving, folder 51 (b).
40. Irving, Hitler's War (London, 1991), p.464.
41. 'Ich habe am 1. September 1939 im Deutschen Reichstag es schon augesprochen - und ich hüte mich vor voreiligen Prophzeihungen -, daß dieser Krieg nicht so ausgehen wird, wie es sich die Juden vorstellen, nämlich daß die europäisch-arischen Völker ausgerottet werden, sondern daß das Ergebnis dieses Krieges die Vernichtung des Judentums sein wird. Zum erstenmal wird diesmal das echt altjüdische Gesetz angewendet: "Aug' um Aug', Zahn um Zahn!"'; Cited in M. Domarus, Hitler. Reden udn Proklamationen, Band II, Zweiter Halbband (Wiesbane, 1973), p.1829.
42. Der Führer gibt noch einmal seiner Meinung Ausdruck, daß er entschlossen ist, rücksichtslos mit den Juden in Europa aufzuräumen. Hier darf man keinerlei sentimentalen Anwandlungen haben. Die Juden haben die Kastastrophe, die sie heute erleben, verdient. Sie werden auch ihre eigene Vernichtung erleben. Wir müssen diesen Prozeß mit einer kalten Rücksichtslosigkeit beschleunigen, und wir tun damit der leidenden und seit Jahrtausenden vom Judentum gequälten Menschheit einen unabschätzbaren Dienst. Diese klare judenfeindliche Haltung muß auch im eigenen Volke allen widerspenstigen Kreisen gegenüber durchgesetzt werden. Das betont der Führer ausdrücklich, auch nachher noch einmalim Kreise von Offizieren, die sich das hinter die Ohren schreiben können./ Die großen Chancen, die dieser Krieg uns bietet, werden vom Führer im ihrer ganzen Tragweite erkannt. Er ist sich heute bewußt, daß er einen Kampf von gigantischer Weite ausficht und daß von dem Ausgang dieses Kampfes das Schicksal der gesamten gesitteten Menschheit abhängt': Goebbels diary entry of 15.2.1942; in E. Fröhlich (ed.), Die Tagebücher von Joseph Goebbels, Teil II, vol. 3 (Munich, 1994), pp.320-1.
43. 'Es ist das eine der größten Revolutionen, die es je gegeben hat in der Welt. Der Jude wird erkannt werden! Der gleiche Kampf, den Pasteur und Koch haben kämpfen müssen, muß heute von uns geführt werden. Zahllose Erkrankungen haben die Ursache in einem Bazillus: dem Juden! Japan würde ihn auch bekommen haben, wenn es dem Juden weiter offen gestanden hätte. Wir werden gesunden, wenn wir den Juden eliminieren.' Hitler table talk on 22.2.1942; cited in Jochmann (ed.), Monologe im Führerhauptquartier 1941-44, p. 293.
44. 'Heute haben die Gedanken unserer nationalsozialistischen und die der faschistischen Revolution große und gewaltige Staten erobert, und meine Prophezeiung wird ihre Erfüllung finden, daß durch diesen Krieg nicht die arische menschheit vernichtet, sondern der Jude ausgerottet werden wird. Was immer auch der Kampf mit sich bringen oder wie lange dauern mag, dies wird sein endgültiges Ergebnis sein. Und dann erst, nach der Beseitigung dieser Parasiten, wird über die leidende Welt eine lange Zeit der Völkerverständigung und damit des wahren Friedens kommen'; Cited in G. Aly, 'Endlösung' (Frankfurt a.M., 1995), p. 404; see also VB, 26.2.1942, Domarus II, 1844.
45. Aly, 'Endlösung', 278.
46. R. Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews (New York, 1983), 619.
47. Cited in J. Noakes, G. Pridham (eds.), Nazism. 1919-1945, Vol. 3 (Exeter, 1988), 1199.
48. Document 112, Grundsätzlicher Befehl; in M. Moll (ed.), "Führer-Erlasse" 1939-1945 (Stuttgart, 1997), p. 201.
49. H. Picker, H. Hoffmann, The Hitler Phenomenon (London, 1974), p. 8.
50. M. Broszat, 'Hitler und die Genesis der Endlösung', in Vierteljahreshefte für Zeitgeschichte, 1977 pp. 739-775, here 765.
51. Burleigh, Death and Deliverance; Friedlânder,Origins of Nazi Genocid, for the full story.
52. Cited in J. Noakes, G. Pridham (eds.), Nazism 1919-1945, Vol. 3 (Exeter, 1988), 1199.
53. 'Das Protokoll gibt die wesentlichen Punkte sachlich, korrekt wieder, nur natürlich ist es kein wortgetreues Protokoll, weil die, sagen wir mal, gewissen Auswüchse, gewisser Jargon der vorgebracht wurde, in dienstliche Worte von mir zu kleiden waren und dieses Protokoll ist, glaube ich, 3 oder 4 Mal von Heydrich korrigiert worden...'; questioning of Eichmann by his attorney, 23 June 1961; cited in K. Pätzold, E. Schwarz (eds.) Tagesordnung Judenmord (Berlin, 1992), p. 186.
54. Eichmann trial, 24.7.1961; cited in G. Fleming, Hitler and the Final Solution (London, 1984), p. 92.
55. Cited in P. Longerich (ed.), Die Ermordung der europäischen Juden (Munich, Zurich, 1989), pp. 85-87.
56. See Expert Report by Prof. Browning
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