إرفنج ضد ليبستدات
David Irving, Holocaust Denial, and his Connections to Right Wing Extremists and Neo-National Socialism (Neo-Nazism) in Germany: Electronic Edition, by Hajo FunkeTable of Contents
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1.2 Scope of the report.
1.2.1The following expert opinion is given in the suit David Irving has brought against Deborah Lipstadt, especially with reference to the 'defence of the second defendant'(1996 I. NO. 1113). In particular it will be examined that,
- i)that the plaintiff has on numerous occasions denied the holocaust;
- ii)that the plaintiff holds extremist views, and has aligned himself with others who do so, including individuals such as Dr. Robert Faurisson and Ernst Zündel;
- 14) Moreover, the plaintiff has strong links with Ewald Althans, the leading Neo-Nazi in Munich, who is anti-Semitic and racist (and proud of it). Althans booked the plaintiff's hotel in Munich for him under a pseudonym in May 1992, and sells and distributes the plaintiff's books, videos and cassettes.
- 15) As a result of the plaintiff's aforesaid views and activities, the plaintiff has been deported from Austria (inter alia, for his extremist views and his connections with the German extremist group, the DVU), and banned from entering Australia, Canada and Germany. The plaintiff has also been banned from the German state archives.
1.2.2And to the plaintiff's 'reply to the defence of second defendant' that
6. (i) it is denied that the plaintiff has denied the holocaust; it is denied, that the plaintiff has denied that gas chambers were used by Nazis as the principle means of carrying out that extermination...
(ii) it is denied that the plaintiff holds extremist views. He has on occasion taken issue with both, Faurisson and Zündel and with their views, and they have taken issue with him...
(15) (ii) it is admitted that the plaintiff is currently banned from entering Germany... it is denied that the plaintiff has extremist views, and also that he has connections with any extremist German group. The DVU (German People's Union) is a long standing democratic and lawfully constituted German political organization which has competed in the national and municipal elections.
1.2.4The following text will address in particular the plaintiff's denial that he holds extremist views and that he has connections to extremists in Germany. To address these points, it is necessary, to refer to the definition and concept of right-wing extremism [henceforth RWE] within the German official institutions responsible for the defence of the constitution, in particular the office responsible for defending the constitution [Bundesamt für Verfassungschutz, henceforth OPC, i.e. office for the protection of the constitution] and the definition within the social and political sciences.
1.2.5We will first describe and analyse the peculiarities of RWE in Germany after 1945, in keeping with the definition of right-wing extremism outlined. In the second part of the first chapter we will reconstruct the development of the organizations and persons with RWE views in Germany, in so far as it is of importance to understand with whom David Irving has connections and with whom he co-operates.
1.2.6We will further address the ideas and the strategy of the German People's Union [Deutsche Volksunion - DVU] and of its leader Dr. Gerhard Frey, as one of the central representatives of RWE in the 1980s, and further the specifics of David Irving's connections with the DVU. We will also look at the DVU in the context of the development of RWE in this period and beyond.
1.2.7In the third chapter we will describe the changes within, and the radicalisation of RWE in the 1980s and early 1990s. We will outline the connection between these groups and the role of radical revisionist ideology in mobilizing their supporters. In the second part of the third chapter we will reconstruct the connections David Irving has had with these radicalized extremists and especially with Germany's neo-National Socialists [henceforth neo-Nazis] in the early 1990s, such as the National Offensive [Nationale Offensive - NO], National List [Nationale Liste - NL], or Ewald Althans and the Althans Sales and Publicity Organisation / Office for People's Enlightenment and Publicity [Althans Vertriebswege und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit / Amt für Volksaufklärung - AVÖ].
1.2.8We will also illustrate how in the late 1980s David Irving decisively took on extremist views on Auschwitz and the Holocaust, and moved into the radical revisionist camp around Robert Faurisson, Ernst Zündel, and Fred Leuchter. Together they constituted the core international propagators of the so-called 'Auschwitz lie'['die Auschwitz Lüge'1 ]. It is also important to consider the structural confluence of interest that bound the denialist or revisionist upsurge of the 1990s with the resurgent neo-Nazi movement in Germany.
1.2.9Finally the report will discuss how Irving knowingly and wilfully violated the current laws of the Federal Republic of Germany, not in his self-appointed capacity as an historian, but as a political agitator for the revisionist cause, RWE, and neo-Nazi groups. This will involve an analysis of why the German authorities fined David Irving, banned (partially or fully) his speeches, and finally asked him to leave Germany and banned him from re-entering in 1993 - measures that give empirical weight to the OPC's analysis of Irving's political activities in Germany.
1.2.10The main body of the report will concentrate on the years 1988/9 -1993, as these are the years involved in most of the accusations concerning David Irving's political activities. There would be much to say about the overlaps between David Irving's political activities in Germany and those in Austria, but by necessity I have chosen to deal exclusively with Germany. Persons named in the body of the text can be referred to in the appendix.
1.2.11In the conclusion we attempt to answer the question posed in the introduction, especially if David Irving has connections with extremists in Germany and to what degree he co-operated with them? Does David Irving hold extremist views and in what form has he presented them to the German public?
1. This use of this term for Holocaust denial in German is something of a misnomer as it was intentionally coined by former Auschwitz SS man and Holocaust denier Thies Christopherson in the early 1970s to expose the 'lie' of the Holocaust. Hence the term denial in German is more usually 'Holocaust-Leugnung'.
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